The Diary of a Young Girl Summary CBSE Class 10 English

the diary of anne frank summary class 10 chapter wise

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The Diary of a Young Girl Summary CBSE Class 10 English

The Diary of a Young Girl – By Anne Frank

Quick Review / Summary
Early Life (June 12,1929-June 15,1942)
Anne Frank, a courageous girl, was gifted a red and white checkered diary by her friend on her thirteenth birthday. She named it Kitty and started writing her feelings and happenings around her as she never had a good friend. Kitty turned to be her friend in which she confided everything. Thus, it was a source of comfort and support to her. Apart from Kitty she received many other gifts like a game, a bottle of grape juice and a blue blouse, a puzzle, a jar of cold cream, 2.50 guilders and a gift certificate, two books from her parents. She celebrated her birthday in the school by sharing cookies with her teachers and her classmates. They played volley-ball, danced around Anne in a circle and sang ‘Happy Birthday’. Then she went home where her friends Ilse Wagner, Hanneli Goslar and Jacqueline van Maarsen were waiting for her. They were called Anne, Hanne and Sanne by others. Her friends presented her a beautiful book—Dutch Sagas and Legends. A puzzle, a darling brooch and a book ‘Daisy goes to the Mountains’ were some of the other gifts presented by her aunts.

Anne celebrated her birthday party on Sunday afternoon. She watched the Rin Tin Tin movie with her friends. It was a big hit. The list of Anne’s friends as written in her diary includes her classmates as well as boys. Her best friend in her class was Jacqueline Van Maarsen but later she realized she never had a real friend and was mistaken about Jacqueline.
Anne had many friends. Betty Bloemendaal looked kind of a poor girl as she lived in some obscure street in West Amsterdam and was a quiet girl. D.Q. was a nervous girl and the teachers always kept assigning her extra homework as punishment. Henny Mets and Ilse Wagner were nice girls with cheerful dispositions. E. S. talked too much whereas Hanneli Goslar was a shy girl—outspoken at home but reserved around other people J.R. was a detestable girl who thought she was grown up. She was easily offended and burst into tears at the slightest thing. There were a few nice girls also in the list -Nannie van Praag-Sigaar, Eefje de Jong and G.Z.
Among the boys there were some who admired her friends, some she regarded as funny, smart but there were others who were quite boring.
But the strange thing was that Anne did not have a true friend. She needed a friend in whom she could confide but there was none. Finally she decided to make ‘Kitty’ her friend and share her secrets with her.

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Anne and her Family (June, 20,1942)
Anne’s father, Otto Frank, was an adorable father. He got married to Anne’s mother at the age of thirty-six. Anne had an elder sister, Margot who was bom in 1926 and Anne was bom on June 29,1929. They lived at Frankfurt till Anne was four years old. Her father worked in a Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactured products used in making jam. In 1933, her parents immigrated to Holland as her father had become the Managing Director of the company. The daughters, Margot and Anne, were sent to stay with their grandmother at Aachen. Anne was sent to a Montessori nursery school where she stayed till she was six. Her teacher in the sixth grade was Mrs. Kuperus, the principal. Both of them had grown a liking for each other and were in tears when Anne had to leave the school as she had been accepted at the Jewish Lyceum.
Life in Germany : Anne’s family lived a life full of anxieties as their relatives in Germany were suffering under Hitler’s anti-Jewish laws. In 1938, her uncles (mother’s brothers) fled from Germany and took a safe refuge in North America whereas their elderly grandmother, aged seventy three came to live with them.
Trouble started for the Jews after May 1940 as a series of anti-Jewish decrees restricted their freedom. According to the Germans, Jews were required to wear a yellow star, forbidden to use street-cars, not even own or ride them.. Their shopping time was fixed between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. There were so many restrictions but life went on. Meanwhile Anne’s grandmother got sick and she died in January 1942. Anne loved her very much and when Anne celebrated her birthday in 1942, grandma’s candle was lit with the others.

Life at School (June 21,1942)
Anne and her five friends formed a club called ‘The Little Dipper Minus Two’. They used to play a lot of ping pong. After a lot of games of ping-pong they used to go to the nearest ice cream parlour that allowed Jews.
June 21,1942 made Anne a little nervous. Actually, it was the day when they were worried about an upcoming meeting in the school in which the teachers would decide the promotion of students to the next grade. Anne was a bit skeptical about Maths.
There were nine teachers in Anne’s school out of which seven were men. Her Maths teacher, Mr. Keesing, had warned her several times as she talked too much. One day, he assigned her an extra home work, an essay on ‘A Chatterbox’. Anne jotted down the assignment and tried to stay quiet. She decided to write an essay that had convincing arguments to prove the necessity of talking. Mr. Keesing enjoyed the arguments but when she talked again in the class, she was assigned another topic ‘An incorrigible chatterbox’. Then in the third class, the topic was ‘Quack
Quack Quack ‘ Anne had exhausted her ingenuity on the topic of chatterboxes. So, she took the help of her friend
Sanne who was good at poetry. They wrote the essay from beginning to end in verse. It was a beautiful poem about a mother duck and father swan with three baby ducklings that were bitten to death by father for quacking too much. Mr. Keesing took the joke in the right way and since then Anne had been allowed to talk and hadn’t been assigned any extra homework.

First meeting with Hello (July 1-5,1942)
Since Jews were not allowed to make use of cars they used to walk wherever they went. On June 24,1942 as Anne passed the bicycle racks, she heard her name being called. When she turned around, she saw her friend Wilmas’ second cousin Hello Silberberg, standing there. Anne was surprised and wasn’t sure what he wanted but still they walked together to school and it continued afterwards also. On the way Hello told Anne about himself that he came from Gelsenkirchen and was living with his grandparents. His parents were in Belgium. He used to have a girlfriend named Ursula but later left her as he didn’t enjoy her company. On Julyl, 1942, Hello told Anne that his grandmother wanted him to meet Ursul and not Anne but Anne could feel that Hello was in love with her and not Ursul. Even Margot and Anne’s mother had developed a liking for Hello which Anne liked. Though she knew in her heart that it was Peter and not Hello whom she loved. Hello was just a friend or as her mother put it—a suitor.

Call-up Notice (July 9-11,1942)
After the results were decl’ared and Anne got her examination results. Anne noticed that her father looked worried about something. When she asked him, he told her that they had to go into hiding. They had already started making preparations by sending their clothes, food and furniture to other people as they neither wanted their belongings to be seized by the Germans nor to be into their clutches. Anne got scared.
On July 8,1942 Margot informed Anne that father had received a call-up notice from the SS. The call-up notice brought the vision of concentration camps and lonely cells and that was frightening. Another terrible jolt came when they realised that the call-up notice was not for Otto but for Margot. After much discussion, it was decided to go into hiding even if it had to be a month earlier than what had been planned.
Margot and Anne started packing their belongings. They packed everything from curler, handerkerchiefs to clothes, school bags and not to forget Anne’s diary. Miep and Jan Gies helped them in shifting their baggage and finally at seven-thirty the family left for their hiding place. They left the house in a mess to create an impression that they had left in a hurry.
Hiding Place: As the Jews were not allowed any conveyance, they walked in pouring rain to reach their hiding place, which was located in Otto’s office-building. The office people- Mr. Kugler, Mr. Kleiman, Miep and Bep Voskuijl- all were informed of their coming. Finally, they reached the building. There was a large warehouse on the ground floor which was used as a workroom and a store room. There was a stairway which led to the ‘Office’ – a very large and light room. There was a kitchen with a hot water heater and two gas burners and a bathroom on the second floor. A wooden staircase led to the third floor. One of its doors led to the ‘Secret Annexe’ at the back of the house. There were many doors behind that which led to a kitchen, a large spacious room, and a washroom.

After they arrived at 263, Prinsengracht. Miep led them to their rooms which were full of the cardboard boxes which they had been shifting. Anne and her father cleared most of it and turned it into a place of living. They found the annexe to be an ideal and comfortable hiding place. Otto plastered the walls with postcards, movie star collection, and pictures to make it look good. Anne’s mother stitched curtains crookedly with unskilled fingers to hang on the windows and doors so that their neighbours might not hear or see them. They loaded the place with strawberries and cherries. They also had a supply of reading material, and decided to buy lots of games to keep themselves quiet so that the people downstairs could not hear them.

Life At Secret Annexe (July 12,1942)
Life at the annexe was not comfortable. Remaining indoors the whole day was quiet boring. By this time Anne had a feeling that her mother did not like her. She loved Margot more than Anne. Though she praised her when she worked hard but she used to pick on her again after five minutes. This was not the case with her father. He liked her and always stood by her. He came to her defence also when she required.
August 14,1942: August 14,1942 brought a change in the life of the Franks as Van Daans also shifted with them. Germans had sent call-up notices to them also but they had no other option except hiding like the Franks. Now there were seven of them- the Franks, Mrs. and Mr. Van Daan and Peter Van Daan, their son. They wanted to know from Van Daans what had happened after they left their apartment. Mr. Van Daan told them that their landlord Mr. Goldschmidt had called him and showed him the note that the Frank family had left behind and so he was planning to bring the cat. While clearing the things, they found a notepad with an address in Maastricht written on it. Mr. Van Daan somehow convinced him that they might have shifted to Maastricht.
September 2,1942 : Mrs. Van Daan had started behaving in a strange way. She never wanted her house-hold things to be used in the daily routine and so started keeping them under lock and key. Her son Peter was hypersensitive and lazy boy. He did not have access to the books that Mr. Vein Daan read as it was meant only for adults. This had piqued Peter’s curiosity and he caught hold of one of the books. When Mr. Van Daan came to know about it, there was a great feeling of quarrel between the two and Peter didn’t take his meals. On the other hand Margot was allowed to read those books. No restriction was imposed on her. Anne’s mother was of the opinion that girls are more mature and hence should be allowed to read the books.

Life Between September And October 1942
Life went on in the same monotonous way. Every other day there was a quarrel or a hot discussion between Anne’s mother and Mrs. Van Daan. There was no change at all. Anne started reading some books. She worked hard at French and crammed five irregular verbs. She helped her father with Dutch lessons .Anne’s mother still scolded her and she grew a disliking towards her. Sometimes she used to burst into tears. There were hot discussions on petty topics like maids, which always ended with both of them in real bad moods. Sometimes there were bickering between the two ladies but most of the time Anne’s mother had to step back as Mrs. Van Daan seemed to be bom debater.
While in hiding, these people faced another problem and that was of taking bath. They used to wash themselves in a wash tub as there was no bath tub. It was very inconvenient till one day Peter gave Anne the idea of taking bath in the spacious office bathroom. Anne liked the idea as well as the place better than anything else. On other days Anne used to think about the days when they would come out of their hiding. On October 7,1942 she imagined herself in Switzerland where they had a beautiful house with beautiful new furniture. She bought so many things when she went to the market as her father had given her 150 guilders. But all this was a dream which never came true.
Life At The Jew Camp: On October 9,1942, Anne Frank noted that many of their J ewish friends and acquaintances were shifted to a big camp in Drenthe. The Gestapo was treating all of them badly. Miep told them that a person had managed to escape from there and informed that it was terrible at the camp. The people got almost nothing to eat, much less to drink as water was available only one hour a day. There was only one toilet and sink for thousand people. It was quite depressing and dismal when Anne heard about it.

A Scary Incident (October 20 1942)
Anne continued her studies during her stay at the secret annexe. On October 14,1942, she translated a chapter, wrote down some vocabulary words, worked on maths problems and also translated three pages of French Grammar. She had started working at short-hand also which she used to enjoy. She read a lot of Komer plays like Hedwig, The cousin, From Bremer, The Governess, The Green Domino, etc. By now, her relationship with her mother had also improved and Margot and Anne exchanged their diaries with each other to read.
The most frightening thing that happened on October 20,1942 was that a carpenter had come that day to fill the five fire extinguishers in the building. The office staff forgot to inform them. But somehow Anne could make it when she heard the hammering on the landing. She informed others about it. Anne and her father stationed themselves at the door so they could hear when the man had left. After about fifteen minutes, the carpenter put his hammer and some other tools on the bookcase (or so they thought) and banged on the door. They turned white with fear presuming that someone had got suspicious about someone living in that place. The knocking, pulling, pushing and jerking at the door continued for some time. Anne fainted out of fear that someone had discovered their wonderful hiding place. It was only after they heard Mr. Kleiman’s voice saying, ‘Open up, it’s me’ that they all heaved a sigh of relief. They opened the door at once.
Actually, the hook fastening the book case (against the door) had got stuck. The carpenter had left after finishing his work and at the same time Mr. Kleiman arrived to get Bep but he couldn’t open the bookcase. For Anne, it was a terrible day as she imagined a giant, the crudest fascist in the world, was trying to get inside the secret annexe.
But everyone soon got over it and life returned to its previous tone. On October 29,1942 they got the information that the furniture had been removed from van Daan’s apartment but they didn’t inform Mrs. Van Daan as she already had grown nervous the last few days. Anne spent most of the time reading books written by well known German authors. Her mother also gave her a prayer book to read. She read them but wondered why mother wanted her to be religious and devout.

November 9,1942 – November 20,1942
Mr. Frank became ill, but the family could not call a doctor. That weekend, Bep Voskuijl, another worker in Mr. Frank’s office, stayed in the annexe. Anne was not happy with her mother as she found something or the other to scold Anne. She never passed any judgement on Margot but always found faults in whatever Anne did. Perhaps that was the reason Anne turned to her diary and confided in it. Mr. Frank recovered from his illness, and Peter turned sixteen on 9 November 1942. The residents of the annexe also agreed to take in an eighth person, and Anne was quite excited at the prospect of a new addition. The new entrant was Albert Dussel, a dentist who was married to a Christian woman. Mr. Dussel was excited when Miep informed him of the hiding place, but he asked for some time to put his accounts in order and treat some patients. Mr. Dussel met Mr. Kleiman at an appointed time, and Miep then led him to the annexe. Mr. Dussel was surprised when he met the Frank family because he had heard they were in Belgium. The van Daans gave Mr. Dussel a list of rules when he arrived. He shared a room with Anne and told her about the shocking things happening outside, including the murders of women and children. Anne thought herself to be lucky to be in hiding, and she thought of the suffering her friends must undergo merely because they were Jewish. Anne was very upset by the news, but she decided that she could not spend all her time crying. The loneliness of the attic made her feel bad.

November 28,1942-June 13,1943
Anne started having a feeling that Mr. Dussel was a strict disciplinarian. Meanwhile, it was time for the celebrations of Hanukkah and St. Nicholas Day which fell on almost the same day. They lighted the Hanukkah candles for only ten minutes as the candles were in short supply. For St. Nicholas Day, father hid a basket filled with presents and a mask of Black Peter in a cabinet.
Van Daan made sausages to preserve the meat they had bought. Mr. Dussel started a dental practice in the annexe and tried to fix Mrs. van Daan’s cavities. Anne got tired of Mrs. van Daan’s incessant complaints and was annoyed that Mr. Dussel constantly told her to be quiet at night. Mr. Kugler brought the residents gravy packets to fill because there was no one else to do the job. According to Anne, however, it was a prisoner’s job. Meanwhile so much was happening outside. Jews were being taken from their homes and separated from their families, and non-Jewish children were wandering the streets in hunger. Both Christians and Jews wanted the war to end, and she believed that her family was better off than people outside the annexe. Anne realised that everyone was always yelling at her and calling her ‘exasperating’. Mr. Frank thought the war would end soon, but the level of anxiety in the annexe increased. Anne got frightened by the sound of gunfire one night and crawled into her father’s bed for comfort. Another night, Peter also climbed up into the loft and a rat bit his arm. The residents got frightened when they heard the sound of burglars in the building. Later, the residents heard a radio announcement that all Jews must be deported from Utrecht and the other provinces of the Netherlands by the beginning of July. Mr. Dussel received a package for his birthday from his wife. Anne noticed that Mr. Dussel did not share his personal food with the other residents or the Dutch helpers. Anne felt that her family was better off than the vast majority of Jews. She predicted that they would look back and wonder how they lived for so long under such difficult conditions. Mr. van Daan believed that the war would end in 1943. On Anne’s fourteenth birthday, her father wrote a poem for her, and Margot translated it from German to Dutch.

June 15,1943-November 11,1943
Mr. Voskuijl did not feel well and was diagnosed with cancer and knew he did not have long to live. Anne decided that she would not learn shorthand anymore as she was becoming nearsighted and reading glasses could not be arranged. The group briefly considered sending her out to an ophthalmologist, but Mr. Frank had heard that the British had landed in Sicily, and so the war would end soon. There was another break-in at the office, and this time the robbers took cash and ration coupons for sugar. Anne thought she would be overjoyed when the war would end as she wanted to go back to school again. Two air-raid sirens sounded in one day as bombs fell relentlessly on Amsterdam. The residents of the annexe got scared, but Anne tried to be brave. They heard the good news that Benito Mussolini, Italy’s fascist leader, had been deposed. Italy surrendered unconditionally, but Anne’s happiness was tampered by the news that Mr. Kleiman had to undergo a stomach surgery. She was worried that Mr. Van Maaren, a man who worked in the warehouse and was not trustworthy, would find out about the hiding place. Anne sometimes used to get frustrated and depression started building in. Anne compared herself to a bird with broken wings, longing for fresh air and sunshine. Margot decided to take a correspondence course in Latin to overcome her boredom, but Anne found it too difficult. Mr. Frank asked Mr. Kleiman for a children’s Bible so that Anne could learn about the New Testament. Anne was constantly afraid of being discovered, and compared the eight residents to a patch of blue sky surrounded by dark clouds. The clouds were setting in, and they could see both the destruction below them and the peace above them.

November, 1943
Anne had a fountain pen which she valued highly. She got it when she was nine years old. It had come from her grandmother in a red leather case. When she was ten she took the pen to school and her teachers allowed her to use it. At the age of twelve it was given a new case in honour of the day she started at the Jewish lyceum. When she turned thirteen she took the pen to the annexe along with her and now that when she was fourteen it was enjoying its last year. One Friday afternoon, as Anne was busy in rubbing beans, she swept the floor and threw die dust in the stove. When she went back to her seat she found her pen missing. Everyone looked for it but all in vain. Next day, the remains of the pen were found when Mr. Frank emptied the stove. There was no trace of the gold nib. Anne was left with one consolation that at least her pen had been cremated just as she would be some day.
Bep had diphtheria and she was not allowed to come in contact with any of them for six weeks. It was very difficult to manage without her. Mr. Kleiman was still in bed and had taken only gruel for three weeks. Mr. Kugler was busy upto his neck in work. Margot started sending Latin lessons to a teacher under the registered name of Bep. The teacher corrected and sent them back. Mr. Dussel was in a state of confusion as Mrs. Van Daan wanted a treat from him on his first anniversary in the annexe.
Anne had a vision of Hanneli in her dreams. She saw her thin and worn wearing rags. She looked at her with sadness as if she wanted to ask why Anne had deserted her. Anne felt guilty for not having thought of her for month in fact she had not forgotten her. She felt helpless as she could not do anything for Hanneli.

December, 1943
It was again time to celebrate St. Nicholas Day but this time they could not celebrate it like last year so, Mr. Frank and Anne decided to write a verse for each person. Anne removed the note at quarter to eight from the big laundry basket and read it aloud. She then asked them to look into the basket for his or her shoe. There was a roar of laughter as everyone took out the shoe because inside each shoe was a little wrapped package addressed to its owner.
Anne was not well as she suffered from flu. She had a bad cough and had to duck under the blanket to try to keep from coughing. They were scared of somebody listening to the coughing. She was given all sorts of treatments to subside her coughing. Bep was still not well but her sister was a bit better. Everyone got something or the other for Flanukkah. The weather was drizzly and overcast and their spirits were low as there was no sign of the war to end.
Anne and other residents were quite moody during their stay at he annexe. Sometimes they felt ‘on top of the world’ and at other times ‘in tjie depths of despair’. Sometimes she used to feel herself fortunate as compared to other Jewish children. She wished to be out in the fresh air, longed to ride a bike, dance, whistle and feel that she was free. She often missed having a mother who took her seriously.
Anne received the Christmas present. Miep had made a delicious Christmas cake with ‘peace 1944’ written on top. Bep provided a batch of cookies. There was a jar of yogurt for Peter, Margot and Anne and a bottle of beer for each of the adults.
Anne again dreamt of grandmother and Hanneli. She thought about her grandma who was so loyal and good. She would never let any of her grandchildren down. She always stuck up for Anne despite her misbehaviour. When she thought of Hanneli she called herself selfish and coward and thanked God for giving her so much which she didn’t even deserve.
There were fewer squabbles in the annexe. Sometimes it was there but only because of food and that too because of the ridiculous ideas of Mrs. Van Daan. For the last few months they had been splitting up the meat, the soup, the potatoes and this time it was the fry potatoes. Anne wished they could split up completely.

January, 1944
Anne went through her diary as she had nothing to do and found that she had shown negative feelings towards her mother. She was shocked and started wondering why she had written such things in her diary. Then she cleared her conscience by telling herself that it was only because her mother did not understand her and she also did not try to be one with her feelings. But that period was now over.

Anne had grown wiser and mother steadier. She stopped retaliating against her mother and tried to think better words to write unpleasant words on paper rather than on her mother’s heart.
Anne realised that her mother tried to be friendly with her whereas she wanted her to be a typical mother tactful and gentle. Once, Anne had gone to a dentist along with her mother and Margot. When the dentist job was over, her mother told her to go back while she and Margot decided to shop. Anne didn’t like the idea as she also wanted to go for shopping. The reason for sending her back was that she had her bike with her. Anne got so annoyed that she rebuked them publicly.

Another thing which she confessed in her diary was her becoming consciousness of the changes that were taking place in her body as well as her mind. Her periods had started and she wanted to have a girl-friend to share her secrets.

Anne liked to have a friend and she decided to select Peter for this role. Once she went to his room but she didn’t gather the courage to talk to him in a friendly way. She came back to her room and cried a lot. That night she had a dream in which she saw herself with Peter-Peter Schiff. When she woke up she could still feel his cheek against her and staring into her eyes. She had earlier dreamt of her granny (paternal grandmother) grandma (maternal grandmother) and Hanneli but this time it was Peter. His mental image was so clear that she didn’t need photograph of him.

Anne recollects how she was in love with Sally’s cousin – Appy. But later she realized that she had an out-and- out crush on Peter. They used to go together through their neighbourhood the whole summer. Years went by and Peter started meeting other girls arousing Anne’s jealousy towards those girls. The older she grew, the more she loved Peter. She used to do nothing else but think about Peter.

Bep, Miep and Jan fell ill. Bep had a bad cold whereas, the other two had upset stomachs. Anne kept herself busy practising dance steps every evening. Everyone in the annexe was interested in reading a book ‘A Cloudless Morning’ which dealt with a number of adolescent problems. Margot had got nicer feelings and started becoming a nice friend. On the other hand Anne’s mother believed that there was no mother like her who had such a good relationship and understanding of her daughters. Anne thought she was wrong. She kept on thinking about Peter most of the time.
The annexe residents had divided many things like meat, fats and oils. They were trying their own potatoes. The relationships had a change. Mother’s birthday was approaching. She had received some extra sugar from Mr. Kugler which made Van Daans jealous of her as Mrs. van Daan had not received such kind of courtesy from anyone.
Anne kept dreaming about Peter and her dreams were less vivid now. She used to be jealous of Margot’s relationship with father but gradually this emotion was weakening. Of course, she still felt hurt when her father used to be unreasonable towards her but she longed for his affection, hugs and kisses. Her mother received a real mocha cafe, prewar quality from the office and it was a nice day.

Anne found a change in her attitude. She started looking towards the petty quarrels with the Van Daans in a different way. She felt that they were not entirely to blame. The fault was on their part also. According to her ‘intelligent people’ (such as ourselves) should have more insight into how to deal with others. Mother should not have been very hard on van Daans.

A strange thing had happened. She could feel that people talk about sex in a secretive or disgusting manner. Even mother told Anne not to discuss sex with anyone especially boys and “if they bring it up, don’t answer them”. She was learning something about the sex from either books or things she picked up in conversations. Mrs. van Daan never discussed this topic with Peter. No one knew how much information did Peter have on this topic but one day, after a discussion whether Boche was a tomcat or a cat, Peter took Anne downstairs and showed her the sexual organ to confirm that it was a male cat. They had more discussions on this topic but Anne felt that she could discuss the topic normally with Peter, without craddng jokes.

Anne developed a great liking for family trees. She spent her Sundays sorting out and looking over movie-star collection. Every Monday Mr. Kugler brought her a copy of ‘Cinema and Theatre’ magazine. Others felt that it was a sheer waste of money but Anne’s knowledge about films and film stars had increased after reading the magazine. She started doing new hair styles. But after getting so many remarks from others she used to restore her hair to their normal mass of curls.

Anne’s mother and Mrs. Van Daan discussed about their childhood quite often and Anne found it very boring. Jan and Mr. Kleiman loved talking about people who had gone underground or into hiding which had become a routine. There were many resistance groups such as free Netherlands, that forget their identity cards, provided financial support to those in hiding, organised hiding places and found work for those young Christians who went underground. Anne felt amazed at the generosity and unselfishness of those people who risked their own lives to help and save others. Other bizarre stories were also making the rounds, e.g., Mr. Kleiman reported of a soccer match held in the province of Gelderland and new registration cards had been issued in Hilversum.
It was a Sunday and Anne found it boring as usual. She went downstairs in the dark all by herself. She stood at the top of the stairs while German planes flew back and forth. She was not afraid. She looked up at the sky and trusted in God. All she wanted to do was scream “Let me be, leave me alone”.

February 1944
Everywhere, there was talk of inversion. Newspapers were full of invasion news and talks like ‘Germans will do what they can to defend the country, even flooding it, if necessary’ was driving people crazy. People were trying to find ways out if confronted with such situation. There were arguments about going hungry, dying, bombs, fire extinguishers, sleeping bags, I-cards, poison gas, etc., but all of them were not pleasant. Anne was the only person who remained calm throughout the discussion. She just hoped that everything would be all right in the end.
Anne had another row with her mother. Actually, something had pricked Margot while she was tucking herself in the wool blanket when they tried to find out, they found it was a pin left by their mother. When mother was informed about it, she got annoyed and criticized Anne for being careless many times.
It was a good day. The shining sun, the deep blue sky, the magnificent breeze, all made Anne long for conversation, freedom, friends, even being alone. She was in a state of utter confusion as she didn’t know what to read, what to write and what to do.

Anne felt Peter glancing at her most of the time. He had an argument with Mr. Dussel when he was fidgeting with the knobs of the radio and wanted to share it with someone. He found Anne to be the right person who would not tell anyone about it and told her everything. Anne listened intently and felt that he was the person with whom she could have a strong feeling of fellowship.

Mr. Dussel told Anne’s mother that Peter had apologised to him. Anne was surprised at this. She cleared it with Peter who told her that Mr. Dussel had been lying. That evening Mr. Van Daan and Peter snubbed Mr. Dussel and said they never wanted to speak again to each other. Peter had a dental appointment that day.
It was Margot’s birthday. She wanted to make Margot feel special, so she thought of making coffee and potatoes for her. She went to the attic to collect some potatoes and Peter helped her. Then she spent some time with Peter who told her that he had an inferiority complex and would never tell anyone after the war that he was a Jew. Anne didn’t like the dishonesty in him. But Anne could make out that he needed affection. That was the reason he hugged Nouschi so tightly.

Anne read the stories written by her ‘Evas Dream’ and ‘The Secret Annexe’ to Mr. Van Daan. Peter also came there and Anne made him read the part where Cady and Haws talked about God. She told him that she wanted him to see that she did not write amusing stories only.

Anne started going to Peter’s room frequently. Her mother didn’t approve of it and always told her not to bother him. She sometimes looked in an odd way at her when she came out of his room. Anne hated her for this.
Anne longed for Peter all the time. Sometimes she felt like crying and then comforting herself on his shoulder. She went twice upstairs but didn’t get any chance to meet him as he was not in his room. She ran to the washroom and cried a lot. Then she realised that she would never reach Peter in that way. She thought that he might not be interested in her. This thought brought more tears in her eyes and it was quite disappointing to have felt that way.
There was not much difference between the routine of people who were not in hiding and the people living in the annexe except that what they did during the rest of the week happened on Sunday in the annexe, getting up, lighting the stove, washing, cleaning, breakfast, washing up the dishes and laundry were the normal chores.
The weather had turned pleasant. Anne and Peter went to the attic to enjoy the natural breath. They could see the blue sky, chesmot tree, seagulls and other birds and were so rapt in the beauty that they were unable to speak. Anne realised that the best remedy for those who are frightened, lonely or unhappy is to go outside, where they can be alone with the sky, nature and God. It would bring comfort to them.

P. S. Thoughts: To Peter

They had been missing so many things at the internal level. Anne also longed for freedom and fresh air like Peter.
Anne thought about Peter only. She felt that both of them were struggling with their innermost feelings. Both their mothers have no motherly understanding and treated them badly.
Anne couldn’t help herself imagining Peter in front of her eyes all the time. It seemed that Peter Schiff and Peter Van Daan had melted into one Peter. All she wanted was to spend maximum time with Peter. According to Anne, she had grown sentimental and foolish.

March 1944

Another burglary attempt took place. Mr. Van Daan found both the glass door and the office door open. On moving ahead he found even the doors above open. He checked everything and when he found that nothing was missing he went off to sleep.. But next morning Peter found the front door open and the projector and Mr. Kugler’s new briefcase had disappeared from the closet. They could make out that it was another case of burglary. The only explanation was that the burglar must have had a duplicate key since there were no signs of a forced entry.
Bep shared her inner feelings of dejection and depression with the two ladies-Mrs. Van Daan and Anne’s mother and wanted some help from them to come out of that situation. Anne’s mother told her to think of all other people in the world who had been suffering. Anne got annoyed. She felt how could grown up be stupid and foolish. She wanted to tell Bep something but she could not. She talked to Peter in the afternoon. Even he had something in his mind which he wanted to share with someone.

Anne started having a feeling that her love for Peter was growing. She again went to the attic to bring potatoes. On the way back, she met Peter and sat talking with him for next one hour. Peter asked him ‘In love’ and she replied “Why should I be in love ?” But deep within her even she knew that she was in love with Peter. It seemed crazy to talk about Peter. It gave her happiness.

Normally, Saturday used to be very boring and dull for Anne but this Saturday her father had a conversation with her in French, and then he read out from Dickens. After having finished the lesson she went downstairs and found Peter waiting for her. She liked it; they talked for almost an hour. Anne wondered whether Peter was also in love with her. Mrs. Van Daan asked what was going on between the two of them but she didn’t say anything. At one moment Anne protested “I take that as an insult” still, it was only Peter she thought about.
Van Daans scolded Peter for petty things and Anne disliked this because she felt a feeling of responsibility toWards him. Anne realised that Peter had no friend in whom he could confide. She wanted to be with him to take away his loneliness. She kept hoping to discover that he was dying to see her and then he would be able to express his feelings to her.

Anne thought about her schooldays and she felt them to be unreal; she had many friends and admirers. Even Peter said “You were always the centre of attraction”. But now there was a drastic change in her. She wanted friends, not admirers. She wanted to be friendly with people who respected her for her character and her deeds and not her flattering smile. That’s why she didn’t miss the schooldays. She looked back at her life of 1943 which brought crying spells and loneliness for her but they brought the gradual realization of her faults and shortcomings as well. The second half of 1943 was a bit better. She had became a teenager but was treated more like a grown up. She wanted to change herself, she didn’t want to be with her mother. New year brought another change. She longed for boyfriend and this brought a difference between Anne and her mother.

Margot and Anne wrote notes for each other. Anne dreamed of Peter. In one of her dreams she saw Peter giving her a kiss but telling her that he didn’t love her. In another dream she found Peter telling her that she was flirting and she told Peter that she was not. She was glad when she woke up that it was only a dream and not a reality. In one of her dreams, she dreamt they were kissing each other and realized that Peter had the cheeks of a man who shaved; they were not soft.

10th March was not a good day. Miep caught cold. Mr. Kleiman had not recovered from his illness. The man who used to supply them potatoes got arrested. Someone scared them by knocking on the wall next door. So, many things happened which made Anne feel sad and dejected. She did not want to do anything not even write the diary pages. She met Peter and they talked and chatted for half an hour in the afternoon.

Anne’s desire to be with Peter kept on increasing. She always wanted to be with him, to talk to him. But she was afraid of being a nuisance. Peter had told her that at one time he used to take her as a pain in the neck and according to Anne she also felt the same but the situation had changed now. She wanted both of them to be the best of friends.
Peter was acting as if he had been annoyed with Anne and it was becoming unbearable for Anne. She used to have the hardest time trying to maintain a normal appearance when she was feeling sad and miserable. She wanted to go outside and talk to someone and sometimes she just wished to be alone. The news from the outside world had made her condition worse. Margot sometimes asked her but she didn’t confide in her.

The people who supplied them food coupons got arrested and there were only five blackmarket ration cards with no coupons, no food and no oils. Since Miep and Mr. Kleiman were sick again it was difficult for Bep to manage the shopping. Now their lunch was washed potatoes and pickled kale. The whole house smelt of them. Mr. Van Daan was irritated as well as annoyed. Mr. Van Daan wanted to smoke only. Mr. Frank wanted to stay calm and quiet whereas Mr. Dussel had to complete his assignment.

Bep was down with a bad cold. Mr. Kleiman’s stomach bled so much that he lost consciousness. They wanted Mr. Keiman to go to a reliable doctor to get a medical certificate of ill health. Doctors attended even serious patients on telephone as there was a long line of patients.

Anne had started resenting the idea of sharing a room with Mr. Alfred Dussel whereas Peter had a room of his own. She didn’t like the idea of not talking to Peter. She wanted to share her inner thoughts with him.

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 16 वन के मार्ग में

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Vasant Chapter 16 वन के मार्ग में

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 16 वन के मार्ग में is part of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 16 वन के मार्ग में.

Board CBSE
Textbook NCERT
Class Class 6
Subject Hindi
Chapter Chapter 16
Chapter Name वन के मार्ग में
Number of Questions Solved 21
Category NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Hindi Chapter 16 वन के मार्ग में

पाठ्यपुस्तक के प्रश्न-अभ्यास

सवैया से

प्रश्न 1.
नगर से बाहर निकलकर दो पग चलने के बाद सीता की क्या दशा हुई?
उत्तर-
नगर से बाहर निकलकर दो पग अर्थात थोड़ी दूर चलने के बाद सीता जी के माथे पर पसीने की बूंदें झलकने लगीं। उनके कोमल ओठ सूख गए। वे शीघ्र ही थक गईं।

प्रश्न 2.
‘अब और कितनी दूर चलना है, पर्नकुटी कहाँ बनाइएगा’-किसने, किससे पूछा और क्यों ?
उत्तर-
‘अब और कितना दूर चलना है, पर्नकुटी कहाँ बनाइएगा’ ये शब्द सीता जी ने श्रीराम से पूछे क्योंकि वे बहुत अधिक थक गई थीं।

प्रश्न 3.
राम ने थकी हुई सीता की क्या सहायता की?
उत्तर-
राम ने जब देखा कि सीता थक चुकी हैं, तो वह देर तक बैठकर पैरों से काँटे निकालने का अभिनय करते रहे, जिससे सीता को कुछ देर आराम करने का मौका मिल जाए और उनकी थकान कम हो जाए।

प्रश्न 4.
दोनों सवैयों के प्रसंगों में अंतर स्पष्ट करो।
उत्तर-
पहले सवैये में वन जाते समय सीता जी की व्याकुलता एवं थकान का वर्णन है। वे अपने गंतव्य के बारे में जानना चाहती हैं। पत्नी सीता की ऐसी बेहाल अवस्था देखकर रामचंद्र जी भी दुखी हो जाते हैं। जब सीता नगर से बाहर कदम रखती हैं तो कुछ दूर जाने के बाद काफ़ी थक जाती हैं। उन्हें पसीना आने लगता है और होंठ सूखने लगते हैं। वे व्याकुलता से श्रीराम से पूछती हैं कि अभी और कितना चलना है तथा पर्णकुटी कहाँ बनाना है? इस तरह सीता जी की व्याकुलता को देखकर श्रीराम की आँखों में आँसू आ जाते हैं। दूसरे सवैये में श्रीराम और सीता की दशा का मार्मिक चित्रण है। इस प्रसंग में श्रीराम व सीता जी के प्रेम को दर्शाते हुए कहा गया है कि कैसे श्रीराम सीता के थक जाने पर अपने पैरों के काँटे निकालते हैं और सीता जी श्रीराम का अपने प्रति प्रेम देखकर पुलकित हो जाती हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
पाठ के आधार पर वन के मार्ग का वर्णन अपने शब्दों में करो।
उत्तर-
वन का मार्ग अत्यंत कठिन था। यह मार्ग काँटों से भरा था। उस पर बहुत सँभलकर चलना पड़ रहा था। रहने के लिए कोई सुरक्षित स्थान नहीं था। रास्ते में खाने की वस्तुएँ नहीं थीं। पानी मिलना भी कठिन था। चारों तरफ सुनसान तथा असुरक्षा का वातावरण था।

अनुमान और कल्पना

गरमी के दिनों में कच्ची सड़क की तपती धूल में नंगे पाँव चलने पर पाँव जलते हैं। ऐसी स्थिति में पेड़ की छाया में खड़ा होने और पाँव धो लेने पर बड़ी राहत मिलती है। ठीक वैसे ही जैसे प्यास लगने पर पानी मिल जाए और भूख लगने पर भोजन। तुम्हें भी किसी वस्तु की आवश्यकता हुई होगी और कुछ समय बाद पूरी हो गई होगी। तुम सोचकर लिखो कि आवश्यकता पूरी होने के पहले तक तुम्हारे मन की दशा कैसी थी?
उत्तर-
किसी वस्तु की आवश्यकता पूरी होने से पहले मन उसके लिए बेचैन तथा व्याकुल रहता है। हम बार-बार उस वस्तु के विषय में सोचते रहते हैं तथा उसे पाने के अनेक प्रयास करते हैं। किसी दूसरे काम में मन नहीं लगता।

भाषा की बात

प्रश्न 1.
लखि-देखकर।
धरि-रखकर।
पोंछि-पोछकर।
जानि-जानकर।
ऊपर लिखे शब्दों और उनके अर्थ को ध्यान से देखो। हिंदी में जिस उद्देश्य के लिए हम क्रिया में ‘कर’ जोड़ते हैं,
उसी के लिए अवधी में क्रिया में f (इ) को जोड़ा जाता है, जैसे-अवधी में बैठ + 1 = बैठि हिंदी में बैठ + कर = बैठकर। तुम्हारी भाषा या बोली में क्या होता है? अपनी भाषा के ऐसे छह शब्द लिखो। उन्हें ध्यान से देखो और कक्षा में बताओ।
उत्तर-
मेरी भाषा हिंदी खड़ी बोली है पर भोजपुरी में निम्नलिखित उद्देश्य के लिए अलग क्रिया के साथ ‘के’ का प्रयोग करते हैं जैसे

  1. देखकर  –  ताक के
  2. बैठकर  –  बइठ के।
  3. रुककर  –  ठहर के।
  4. सोकर  –  सुत के
  5. खाकर  –  खा के।
  6. पढ़कर  –  पढ़ के।

प्रश्न 2.
“मिट्टी का गहरा अंधकार, डूबा है उसमें एक बीज।’
उसमें एक बीज डूबा है। जब हम किसी बात को कविता में कहते हैं तो वाक्य के शब्दों के क्रम में बदलाव आता है; जैसे-“छाँह घरीक वै ठाढ़े” को गद्य में ऐसे लिखा जा सकता है। “छाया में एक घड़ी खड़ा होकर।” उदाहरण के आधार पर नीचे दी गई कविता की पंक्तियों को गद्य के शब्दक्रम में लिखो।
उत्तर-
पुर तें निकसी रघुबीर-बधू,
सीता जी नगर से बाहर वन जाने के लिए निकलीं।

  • पुट सूख गए मधुराधर वै॥

मधुर होठ सूख गए।

  • बैठि बिलंब लौं कंटक काढ़े।

कुछ समय तक श्रीराम ने आराम किए और अपने पैरों से देर तक काँटे निकालते रहे।

  • पर्नकुटी करिहौं कित है?
  • पत्तों की कुटिया अर्थात पर्णकुटी कहाँ बनाएँगे ?

अन्य पाठेतर हल प्रश्न

बहुविकल्पी प्रश्नोत्तर

(क) ‘वन के मार्ग में’ पाठ के कवि कौन हैं?
(i) विष्णु प्रभाकर
(ii) जयंत विष्णु नार्लीकर
(iii) तुलसीदास
(iv) सुमित्रानंदन पंत

(ख) रघुबीर की वधू कौन थी?
(i) गीता
(ii) सीता
(iii) द्रौपदी
(iv) कुंती

(ग) राम की आँखों में आँसू क्यों आ गए?
(i) वन के कष्टों के कारण
(ii) घर की याद आने से
(iii) सीता की व्याकुलता देखकर
(iv) अपने पिता को याद करके

(घ) पर्नकुटी किस चीज़ से बनती है?
(i) पत्थर से
(ii) पानी से
(iii) पत्तों से
(iv) इनमें से कोई नहीं

(ङ) राम और सीता के साथ कौन बन गया?
(i) लक्ष्मण
(ii) भरत
(iii) शत्रुघ्न
(iv) इनमें से कोई नहीं

उत्तर-

(क) (iii)
(ख) (ii)
(ग) (iii)
(घ) (iii)
(ङ) (i)

अतिलघु उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
प्रथम सवैया में कवि ने राम-सीता के किस प्रसंग का वर्णन किया है?
उत्तर-
प्रथम सवैया में कवि ने श्रीराम व सीता के अयोध्या से निकलकर वन गमन का वर्णन किया है।

प्रश्न 2.
राम और सीता कहाँ जाने के लिए निकले थे?
उत्तर-
राम और सीता वन जाने के लिए निकले थे।

प्रश्न 3.
वन गमन के समय सीता ने राम से क्या पूछा?
उत्तर-
वन गमन के समय सीता जी ने राम जी से पूछा कि कितना और चलना है? और पर्णकुटी कहाँ बनाइएगा?

प्रश्न 4.
पर्नकुटी किस चीज़ से बनती है?
उत्तर-
पर्नकुटी पत्तों से बनती है।

प्रश्न 5.
राम ने रुककर क्या किया?
उत्तर-
राम ने रुककर थोड़ा विश्राम किया और पैरों में चुभे काँटों को देर तक निकालते रहे।

लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
वन के मार्ग में सीता को होने वाली कठिनाईयों के बारे में लिखो।
उत्तर-
सीता वन के मार्ग पर थोड़ी दूर चलने से ही थक गईं। उनके माथे पर पसीना दिखाई देने लगा। उनके होंठ सूख गए। वे बहुत बेचैन हो उठीं और पूछने लगीं कि अभी कितनी दूर जाना है। मार्ग काँटों से भरा था जिससे सीता का चलना मुश्किल हो रहा था।

प्रश्न 2.
सीता जी बेचैन होकर श्रीराम से क्या बातें कही?
उत्तर-
सीता जी अपने पति राम से पूछती हैं कि अब और हमें कितना अधिक चलना है तथा पर्नकुटी कहाँ बनाना है। अभी लक्ष्मण पानी लेने गए हैं। अतः आप किसी पेड़ की छाया में खड़े होकर उनकी प्रतीक्षा कीजिए। जब तक लक्ष्मण पानी लेकर नहीं आ जाते तब तक पेड़ की छाया में रुककर हम लोग विश्राम कर लेते हैं।

प्रश्न 3.
अपने प्रति राम का प्रेम देखकर सीता जी की क्या दशा हुई?
उत्तर-
अपने प्रति राम का प्रेम देखकर सीता जी मन-ही-मन पुलकित हो जाती हैं।

प्रश्न 4.
“धरि धीर दए’ का आशय क्या है?
उत्तर-
‘धरि धीर दए’ का आशय है-धीरज धारण करके यानी मन में हिम्मत बाँधकर कोई काम करना।

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The Story of My Life by Helen Keller Summary CBSE Class 10 English Literature

The Story of My Life by Helen Keller Summary CBSE Class 10 English Literature

The Story of My Life – Helen Keller

About the Author
Helen Adam Keller was bom on June 27,1880. She was an American author, political activist and lecturer. Her father’s name was Arthur H. Keller. He was a captain, a former officer of the Confederate Army. Her mother was Kate Adams Keller. The Keller family originated from Switzerland. Helen contracted an illness when she was nineteen months old. It was an acute congestion of the stomach and brain which could have been scarlet fever or meningitis. She did not suffer long from this illness but it left her deaf and blind. Helen started communicating through signs with her family. In 1886, she was taken to Dr. J. Julian Chisolen who was an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist for advice who further sent them to Alexandar Graham Bell who was working with the deaf children at that time. Bell advised them to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind. On reaching there, the school’s director put Helen under the charge of their former student Anne Sullivan who herself was visually impaired.
Anne Sullivan began to teach Helen to communicate by spelling words into her hands which Helen quickly leamt. In 1894, they both moved to New York to attend Wright-Humason School for the Deaf and Horace Mann School for the Deaf. In 1900, Helen gained admission in Radcliffe College. At the age of 24, in 1904, she graduated from the same college and became the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts Degree. Anne Sullivan stayed as a companion for 20 long years with Helen but after marriage her health started failing and Polly Thompson was hired to keep house.

Polly was a young woman from Scotland who had no experience with deaf or blind people but she became a constant companion to Keller. Anne died in 1936 and Helen moved to Connecticut with Polly. Both travelled worldwide and raised funding for the blind. Polly suffered a stroke and died in 1960. After her death Winnie Corbally remained Keller’s companion for the rest of her life.
Keller became a world famous speaker and author. She is still remembered as an advocate for people with disabilities and numerous other causes. In 1915, she founded the HKI-Helen Keller Institutional organization which is devoted to research in vision, health and nutrition. Helen travelled to more than 39 countries and became a favourite of the Japanese. In 1912, she joined the IWW-Industrial Workers of the World.

Helen wrote several pieces of writing. The earliest was the Frost King (1891). She published her auto biography, The Story of My Life (1903), The World I Live In (1980), Out of the Dark (1913) and My Religion (1927). She wrote 12 published books. On September 14,1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom one of the highest civilian honours of the United States. She devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Helen left this world on June 1,1968 at her home in Connecticut.
Her life has always been a source of inspiration to many. She became the subject of many movies and TV serials. She was listed in the Gallup’s Most Widely Admired People in 1999 and her statue was unveiled in 2009 at the United States Capital Building. Her life-story is unusual as well as inspiring.

More Resources for CBSE Class 10

Summary of the Story of My Life chapter 1 to 14 (Class 10 English)

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 1 – Class 10 English

Helen Keller was born on June 27, 1880 in Tuscumbia, a little town of northern Alabama. The family on her father’s side descended from Casper Keller, a native of Switzerland, who settled in Maryland. Her grandfather, Caspar Keller’s son, also acquired large tracts of land in Alabama and finally settled there. Her grandmother Keller was the daughter of Alexander Moore and second cousin to Robert E Lee. Her father’s name was Arthur H. Keller who was a captain in the Confederate Army and her mother was Kate Adams who was many years younger to her husband as she was his second wife.

Helen Keller lived in a small house which consisted of a large square room and a small one in which the servant slept. There was a custom in the south to build a small house near the homestead as an annex to be used on occasion and such a house was built by her father after the Civil War. After his marriage to Kate, Helen’s mother, he shifted to
that house. The house was covered with vines, climbing roses and honeysuckles. There was a screen of yellow roses and Southern Smilax which hid the, little porch. It was the favourite haunt of humming birds and bees. The family lived in the Keller Homestead, also known as ‘Ivy Green’ because the house, the surrounding trees and fences were covered with ivy. Helen considered the house as the paradise of her childhood.

Helen’s life began on a simple note. The very naming of the child, i.e., Helen was an emphatic one. Her father suggested the name of Mildred Campbell whom he regarded highly but her mother put an end to all discussions by saying that she would be called after her mother, Helen Everett. Helen was taken to the church for christening but on the way, her father lost the name. He just remembered that it had to be after Helen’s grandmother so he gave her the name Helen Adams.

In her childhood, Helen was an eager and self-asserting child. She imitated everyone and learnt walking as well as talking at an early age. But her happiness did not last long. One day in the month of February, she fell ill. The doctors termed it as an acute congestion of the stomach and brain. They even thought that she would not live. It was a mysterious fever which left her suddenly and mysteriously. But it took her eye-sight along with it. With each passing day, her eyes turned dry and hot and became dimmer and she felt silence all around. It was a nightmare for her when she realised that she had lost her eyes and ears. The whole world to her was dark and silent.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 2 – Class 10 English

In the initial months after her illness, Helen either sat in her mother’s lap or cling to her dress when she went about doing her household chores. She touched every object and observed every motion thus enabling her to understand the outer world. She started communicating using sign language. A shake of her head meant ‘No’ and a nod ‘Yes’, a pull meant ‘Come’ and push ‘Go’. Her mother was of great help to her and she turned her long dark nights into bright and good ones with her wisdom. She was always sent for when they had guests and she waved her hand to them when they took their leave.

But after sometime, Helen started realising that she was different from others. She noticed that sign language was not used by other people but they used their lips to talk. She used to touch their lips and then hers. She could feel the difference and sometimes she used to get so angry that she kicked and screamed till she got exhausted.
Helen was a naughty girl. She used to kick her nurse Ella and dominated her cook’s daughter Martha Washington. Her sources of interest were the sheds where the com was stored, the stable where horses were kept and the yards where the cows were milked. Once she was saved from fire by her old nurse, Viny. In this way her mischiefs kept on increasing. By this time, she had found out the use of a key and locked her mother in the pantry for three hours. Her mother kept on pounding on the’door, while she sat outside on the steps and laughed. This was the naughtiest prank ever done by Helen and Miss Sullivan was appointed as a teacher. But Helen locked even her and hid the key under the wardrobe in the hall. Miss Sullivan was taken out through the window.

Helen’s father was most loving and devoted to his home. Apart from this he was a great hunter. He loved being hospitable and seldom came home without bringing a guest. He raised watermelons and strawberries in his special big garden. Her father was a story-teller also and used to spell clumsily into Helen’s hands some of his cleverest anecdotes. But unfortunately after a short illness, he died in 1896.

Helen’s mother was equally near Helen’s heart. So much so that she regarded her little sister as an intruder out of jealousy. Once she overturned the cradle in which her little sister was sleeping just because it belonged to Nancy, Helen’s doll. She was saved from falling by her mother. Later on, both of them became good friends.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 3 – Class 10 English

With the passage of time, Helen started feeling uncomfortable and inadequate with her sign language. She often underwent outbursts of passion and generally broke down in tears and physical exhaustion. Her parents were deeply grieved to see her in such condition and had lost all hope of getting her taught as they lived in out of the way place as Tuscumbia. But Dickens’ ‘American Notes’ brought a ray of hope. Her mother read about the story of Laura Bridgman who was deaf and blind yet had been educated. But Dr. Howe, who had discovered the ways to teach such children had been dead many years.

It was only when Helen reached the age of six that they heard of an eminent oculist in Baltimore who had treated many such cases. They immediately decided to meet him. They caught a train and reached Baltimore. Dr. Chrisholem received them kindly but further told them to consult Dr. Alexander Graham Bell of Washington to get more information about schools and teachers of deaf or blind children. They met Dr. Bell who understood her signs and left a deep impression on Helen’s mind. He advised Helen’s father to write to Mr. Anagnos, director of the Perkins Institution in Boston to ask him about a teacher who could teach Helen. They received the reply telling them about Miss Sullivan who arrived the following March.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 4 – Class 10 English

The day Miss Sullivan arrived was the most important day in Helen’s life. It was March 3,1887 and Helen was around seven years old. On that day, she could feel that something important was going to happen as there was a lot of to and fro in the house. Then Miss Anne Manefield Sullivan arrived who gave her a doll. The children at the Perkins Institution had sent it for her. When she had played with it a little while, Miss Sullivan slowly spelled the world ‘d-o- 1-T which Helen tried to imitate. Later, she learned to spell pin, cup, sit, stand, walk, mug, water, etc. Miss Sullivan taught her the word ‘water’ in a different way. She took her to a well. There she spelled the word ‘water’ in one hand and on the other she could feel the cool stream of water flowing over her hand. It was a strange feeling but it left her with a new hope, light and joy. She felt herself to be the happiest child that day and for the first time she waited for a new day to come.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 5 – Class 10 English

The arrival of Miss Sullivan filled Helen’s life with confidence and joy. She kept on teaching her something or the other. Her next chapter was nature. She took her to the fields, to the banks of Tennesse River to learn about nature. Helen started enjoying the world she lived in. Miss Sullivan made her feel beauty in the woods, blades of grass, birds, flowers, in fact almost everything. But one stormy day gave Helen a feeling that nature can be cruel also. She was sitting on the branch of a tree and Miss Sullivan proposed to have lunch there only. Helen agreed to the proposal and Miss Sullivan went home to bring the lunch. Helen was left alone there. Suddenly, Helen felt the heat of sun lessening and a terrible shaking of trees. She grew frightened and longed for her teacher’s arrival. The feeling of terror kept on increasing and she made up her mind to jump down. Suddenly her teacher seized her hand and helped her down. The experience shook Helen terribly. It took her a long time to gather enough courage to climb another tree. But finally she climbed the mimosa tree which had large branches and rough barks. The feeling of having done something wonderful and unusual filled Helen’s mind. She felt like a fairy on a rosy cloud and spent many happy hours in the tree.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 6 – Class 10 English

After learning a few words, Helen was eager to learn how to use them. She knew her vocabulary was insufficient but as she learned more and more words, her field of enquiry widened. She was always eager to know something more. One such word was ‘love’, she wanted to know the meaning of this word. Miss Sullivan tried to teach her the meaning by kissing her, by gently holding her but somehow she didn’t understand it. But one day suddenly when the sun shone after brief showers, she felt the meaning of love. Miss Sullivan told her that love is to be felt and not touched. Immediately she realised whaf love is. In the same way, she was taught another abstract word ‘think’ by Miss Sullivan by touching her forehead and spelling it.

By now Helen could make out that a deaf child can’t learn any lesson within a month or a year as an ordinary child can by imitating or repeating as these exchange of ideas are denied to the deaf. But Miss Sullivan came to her help here also and told her to repeat as far as possible. It is difficult for the deaf and the blind to do it as they can neither see the expressions of the speaker nor can they hear the tone of the voice.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 7 – Class 10 English

The next step in Helen’s education was learning to read. For this purpose, her teacher gave her slips of cardboard which had raised letters printed on them and each printed word stood for something like an object, act or a quality. There was a frame also in which she could arrange the words in little sentences. Helen started arranging words like ‘doll-is-on-bed’, ‘girl-is-in-wardrobe’, etc. After that she took the book ‘Reader for Beginners’ and looked for the words she knew. Thus she began to read also. She had no regular lesson. Her teacher taught her by illustrating a story or a poem and she kept on learning grammar, hard sums, definition, etc. She learnt all these lessons in the lap of nature sometimes amongst the flowers and sometimes in the orchard. Helen learnt geography, arithmetic, zoology and botany-all in a leisurely manner. Arithmetic seemed a disinteresting subject to Helen. In science, she was taught the growth of a plant in its actual form. She enjoyed her lessons as she learnt them from life itself. But it was all because of her teacher who was teaching her in such a way that everything around her breathed of love, joy and was full of meaning. Helen was delighted in the company of her teacher as she had a great influence on her life.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 8 – Class 10 English

Helen kept on climbing the steps of learning under the expert guidance of Miss Sullivan until Christmas approached. It was her first Christmas with Miss Sullivan. Both of them prepared surprises for all others. Helen’s greatest amusement and happiness lay in the mystery that surrounded the gifts which she was to receive. Her curiosity was further aroused by her friends. She kept on playing the guessing game with Miss Sullivan.

On the eve of Christmas, the Tuscumbia School Children invited Helen to a beautiful Christmas tree which provided extreme happiness to Helen. She was told that there was a gift for everyone. She was very excited but she kept on waiting for the real gift that she would get on the day of Christmas. Next morning, with her first ‘Merry Christmas’, she was presented a canary-a bird which made her extremely happy. She took great care of the bird. But one day while she was away a cat rushed upon it and the bird was gone.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 9 – Class 10 English

In May, 1888, Helen visited Boston with Miss Sullivan. The journey to Boston was very different from her journey to Baltimore which she had made two years before. She sat quietly beside Miss Sullivan who told her about everything that she saw out of the car-window. She told her about the beautiful Tennessee River, the great cotton-fields, the hills, woods, laughing negroes-in fact each and everything. Helen took her rag doll Nancy also to Boston. On the way, she forced Nancy, the doll, to eat remains of mud pies which covered her with dust. She was carried away to give a bath at the Perkins Institution which left her in a heap of cotton. It was bad for Nancy. When they reached the Perkins Institution for the Blind, Helen became quiet friendly with the little blind children. She liked the idea of being with the blind and felt one with them. She found that they were all so happy and contented despite being deprived of a precious gift. She herself lost the sense of pain in their company. She had her first lesson in history when they visited Bunker Hill and her first voyage when they went to Plymouth by water. She paid a visit to Miss William Endicott’s house with whom she had made friends. She enjoyed her visit to Miss Endicott’s Beverly farms. Mr. Endicott was also a kind-hearted man and became one of Helen’s good friends whom she always remembered.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 10 – Class 10 English

The Perkins Institution used to close for the summer. It was almost time for the summer vacation and it was decided that Helen and her teacher would spend their vacation at Brewstar, on cape cod with Mrs. Sophia Hopkins-a matron at the same institution. Helen was delighted when she heard about her vacation. Actually, she had planned to make her wish come true and her wish was to touch the mighty sea and feel it roar. On reaching there, she was helped into the bathing suit. Without having any thought of fear, she jumped into the cool water and felt the great billows rock and sink. The movement of the water filled her with joy. But suddenly her joy turned into terror when her foot struck against a rock and she felt a rush of water over her hand. She struggled a lot to come out of it but all went in vain. Suddenly, the sea threw her back on the shore and left her. It was a terrible experience for her but still she recovered from it and sat on a big rock to feel the waves dash against it. It was a wonderful experience.

One day, while enjoying the waves, her attention was attracted by Miss Sullivan towards a horseshoe crab.
‘ Helen was amazed when she fell the crab ‘carrying his house on his back’. She took it home to make her pet. When she reached home, she put the crab in a trough near the well, confident enough that it was secure. The next morning she went to meet her little pet only to realize that it had disappeared. There was no answer to where and how he had escaped. She was disappointed but later felt it was better for the dumb creature as perhaps he had returned to the sea where he belonged.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 11 – Class 10 English

Time passed by and it was autumn when Helen returned to her Southern home. Her heart was full of happy memories of the days spent in the North. Her life there was as full of motion as little insects which crowd a whole existence into one brief day. She spent the autumn months with her family at Fern Quarry – their summer cottage on a mountain about fourteen miles from Tuscumbia. There were small rooms in the cottage and round the house was a wide piazza where they worked, ate and played most of the time. The evenings in the Fern Quarry were pleasant as there were many visitors who used to play cards or spent their time in talk by the campfire. Generally, the men talked about their wonderful feats with fowl, fish, ducks, turkeys, etc. They all were hunters and they shouted “Tomorrow to the Chase!” before they went to sleep.

There was a lot of noise of the heavy steps of hunters in the morning as they were getting ready to go out for hunting. Meanwhile the others made preparation for a barbeque. When the excitement of the preparation was at its height, the hunters came back hot and weary with not a single kill. They seemed disappointed but soon forgot about it to a tamer feast of veal and roast pig.

Helen had a pony also at Fern Quarry whom she called Black Beauty and she often went riding on it. She enjoyed the time spent on riding.

At the foot of the mountain there was a railroad which attracted children towards it because of the trains whizzing by. One day Mildred, Miss Sullivan and Helen lost their path in the woods there and wandered for hours to find it. Suddenly, Mildred saw a trestle which would have been a short cut to their home. Helen felt for the rails with her toe, without being afraid and got on very well until she heard Mildred cry “I see the train”. They immediately climbed down and the train rumbled by. It was a narrow escape but she couldn’t forget the experience.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 12 – Class 10 English

Helen spent almost every winter in the North after her first visit to Boston. Once she went on a visit to a New England village and there she had her first experience of snowfall. The earth seemed benumbed by its icy touch. The grass and bushes were turned into icicles. They all sat around the great fire and told merry tales to each other. The snowfall stopped after three days. Everything looked like figures in a marble freeze. As the days passed on, the trees lost their ice covering and the bushes became bare once the sun shone brightly.
The favourite amusement during the winter was tobogganing. They would get on their toboggan, somebody would shove them and they would swoop down the lake to the opposite bank. It was great fun.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 13 – Class 10 English

In this chapter Helen tells us how she learned to speak and what efforts she made for it. It was in the spring of 1890 that Helen learned to speak though she had been practising it for months. The impulse to produce audible sounds had always been strong within her. She would put one hand on her throat and with the other hand she tried to feel the movements of her lips. When she was in her mother’s lap, she would move her hand on her face to feel how her lips moved. It gave her immense joy. Before she lost her sight and hearing, she was fast learning to speak. She also remembered the first word that she uttered was water. She pronounced it ‘wa-wa’. Then her illness snatched her sight and hearing. Then with the help of Miss Sullivan she practiced to communicate by feeling letters with her fingers. But she was not satisfied with it and was very eager to speak with her mouth. At last her efforts bore fruit and she learned to speak in 1890.
In 1890, Mrs. Lamson, who had taught Laura Bridgman and had just returned from a visit to Norway and Sweden, came to meet her. She told Helen how a blind and deaf girl of Norway named Ragnhild Kaata was taught to speak. The story of Mrs. Lamson infused Helen with a new hope and she resolved that she would also learn to speak. Her teacher, Miss Sullivan took her for advice and assistance to Miss Sarah Fuller. The kind lady took upon herself the responsibility to teach her. Thus, she began her education under the guidance of Miss. Sarah Fuller in March 1890.

Since the teacher and the taught both were devoted to attain the single aim, they achieved success. After a long practice, Helen pronounced the first sentence, it was warm. How happy she was can only be imagined by the deaf and blind child who had uttered a word for the first time.

But, it must not be supposed that she could really speak as we speak. She had learned only the elements of speech. Only Miss Sullivan and Miss Sarah Fuller could understand what she uttered. But most people would not have understood her for hours. She was left only with one way and that was of practice. She practised speaking for hours and Miss Sullivan always assisted her in her practice. Sometimes she was weary and disappointed, but soon hope overcame dejection. Besides the thought that a great and pleasant change was about to come in her life dispelled the dark clouds of despair in the same way as dew drops disappear on the emergence of the sun. Finally, her efforts and the affection and devotion of her teachers forced fate to bow to her and Helen learned to speak. Now she was impatient to show her achievements to her parents, sister and friends. And, then came the day when Helen reached Tuscumbia Railway station where her parents, sister and friends were present to receive her. The spring season, bloom, joviality, youthful prank and beauty all returned to their lives. The doors to a new life had been opened to all.

Summary of Story of my Life Chapter 14 – Class 10 English

In the winter of 1892, there occurred such an incident that blotted out the bright sky of Helen’s childhood and for a long time she remained in a state of suspicion, anxiety and dejection. Books lost their charm for her. The main cause of the trouble was a story ‘The Frost King’ which she wrote to send as a gift to Mr. Anagnos on his birthday. Mr. Anagnos was the Director of Perkins Institute for the Blind.
Helen wrote this story in the autumn after she had learned to speak. Having returned from Fern Quarry, one day Miss Sullivan told her about the beauty of new foliages. Miss Sullivan’s version of new verdure reminded Helen of some story that had been read to her some times earlier. It occurred to her that the outline of the story had taken shape in her mind and she at once sat down to write it lest the idea should slip from her mind. Words and images flowed from her pen as if they had been on her finger’s end. Her only aim to write the story was to please Mr. Anagnos and to prove to her friends that she could accomplish what many think to do but only few attain success in putting words in a systematic order. Little did she know that the publication of the story would shatter the glass house of her fantasy and splinters of disgrace would continue to prick her conscience for a long time to come. Having completed the story, Helen read it to her friends and the members of her family. They were astonished to know that Helen could write so well. Actually, the story was written so nicely that none believed that it was the product of the brain of someone who was a spring chicken in the field of writing. When someone asked her if it was her own composition, she answered firmly that it was the child of her own imagination. On the suggestion of her friends and teacher, the title of the story was changed from ‘Autumn Leaves’ to ‘The Frost King’.

Helen posted the letter to Mr. Anagnos who was delighted to receive this unexpected gift from a blind and deaf 1
girl. He published the story in a report of the Perkins Institute. The publication of the story was the pinnacle of her happiness. But after the publication of the story, the fact came into light that almost the same story had appeared before her birth in a book named ‘Birdie and His Friends’, under the title ‘The Frost Fairies’. It was written by Miss Margaret  T. Canby. The thoughts and language of the two stories were so akin to each other, that it was evident that Helen had heard the story of Miss Canby and that her own story was a plagiarism. It was a great shock to Helen and she felt much, disgraced. Her friends began to doubt her talent and looked at her with suspicion. Helen tried her best to recall if she had ever heard Miss Canby’s story, but she did not remember. Mr. Anagnos, though deeply troubled, believed her innocence. A few days after this sad incident, Helen went to attend Washington’s birthday celebration.

The night before the celebration, a teacher asked her questions related to the Frost King. Though she strongly denied to have ever heard Miss Canby’s story, she (the teacher) drew the conclusion from her conversation that Miss, Sullivan might have told Miss Canby’s story to her and Helen remembered the story which she wrote under the title the Frost King.

Now Mr. Anagnos came to believe that he was deceived. He turned a deaf ear to all her pleadings and claims of innocence. He also arrived at the conclusion that Miss Sullivan and Helen stole Miss Canby’s story and presented it to him as Helen’s own creation to influence him and win his favour. Helen was presented before the court of investigation consisting of eight members. She was questioned and cross questioned. The aim of the judges was to make her acknowledge that she knew Miss Canby’s story and she deliberately got it published as her own composition to impress Mr. Anagnos and win his admiration. Though Helen firmly denied their charges, when she came out of the room she did not notice her teacher’s caresses and the confidence of her friends. That night she wept bitterly and wished that she might die before the appearance of dawn. But slowly and gradually, time healed her wound given by disgrace and made her oblivious of what had happened.

Miss Sullivan had never read Miss Canby’s story. Later after much investigation and discussion, Miss Sullivan and Dr. Graham Bell reached the conclusion that Helen might have read Miss Canby’s story during her stay with Miss Hopkins. Whatever may be, Helen had to accept that she must have read Miss Canby’s story and that long after she ,
had forgotten it, it came back to her so naturally that she thought it the child of her own mind.

After this sad incident, many people wrote letters of love and sympathy to her. Miss Canby also wrote to her that someday, she would also write a great book. But she did not write anything new for a long time. Later she came to know that she had actually heard Miss Canby’s story because she used other ideas and sentences of that story in some of her letters. The reality was that she had absorbed the story so much that with the passage of time, she would use its ideas and language in her own ompositions considering them as her own ideas and words. In this context, Helen quotes the view of famous English essayist and novelist R.L. Stevenson. He writes that a young writer instinctively tries to copy whatever seems most admirable to him. It is after a long practice and experience that he becomes able to express his own ideas in his own language. Helen accepted that she had yet not attained that state, but she did not accept defeat. She believed if others had succeeded before her, she too would attain success.

This incident made her aware of the problems of writing, but it resulted in the loss of one good friend Mr. Anagnos. After the publication of Helen’s ‘The Story of My Life’, Mr. Anagnos wrote to her that before the court of investigation he cast his vote with those who were in her favour. For two years Mr. Anagnos held the belief that Helen and Miss Sullivan were innocent but later he changed his view.

Helen wrote this account of the ‘Frost King’ case because it was important in her life and education. She neither defended herself nor did she lay blame on any one else.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 17 बाज और साँप

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 17 बाज और साँप are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 17 बाज और साँप.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 17 बाज और साँप

प्रश्न-अभ्यास

Question 1.
घायल होने के बाद भी बाज ने यह क्यों कहा, ”मुझे कोई शिकायत नहीं है।” विचार प्रकट कीजिए।
Solution:
घायल होने के बाद भी बाज ने यह कहा कि – “मुझे कोई शिकायत नहीं है।” उसने ऐसा इसलिए कहा क्योंकि वह किसी भी कीमत पर समझौतावादी जीवन शैली पसंद नहीं करता था। वह अपने अधिकारों के लिए लड़ने में विश्वास रखता था। उसने अपनी ज़िंदगी को भरपूर भोगा। वह असीम आकाश में जी भरकर उड़ान भर चुका था। जब तक उसके शरीर में ताकत रही तब तक ऐसा कोई सुख नहीं बचा जिसे उसने न भोगा हो। वह अपने जीवन से पूर्णतः संतुष्ट था।

Question 2.
बाज ज़िंदगी भर आकाश में ही उड़ता रहा फिर घायल होने के बाद भी वह उड़ना क्यों चाहता था?
Solution:
बाज ज़िंदगी भर आकाश में उड़ता रहा, उसने आकाश की असीम ऊँचाइयों को अपने पंखों से नापा। बाज साहसी था। वह किसी भी कीमत पर समझौतावादी जीवन शैली पसंद नहीं करता था। अतः कायर की मौत नहीं मरना चाहता था। वह अंतिम क्षण तक जीवन की आवश्यकताओं के लिए संघर्ष करना चाहता था।

Question 3.
साँप उड़ने की इच्छा को मूर्खतापूर्ण मानता था। फिर उसने उड़ने की कोशिश क्यों की?
Solution:
साँप उड़ने की इच्छा को मूर्खतापूर्ण मानता था क्योंकि वह मानता था कि वह उड़ने में सक्षम नहीं है। पर जब उसने बाज के मन में आकाश में उड़ने के लिए तड़प देखी तब साँप के मन में भी उत्सुकता जागी कि आकाश का मुक्त जीवन कैसा होता है ? इस रहस्य का पता लगाना ही चाहिए। तब उसने भी आकाश में एक बार उड़ने की कोशिश करने का निश्चय किया।

Question 4.
बाज के लिए लहरों ने गीत क्यों गाया था?
Solution:
बाज की बहादुरी पर प्रसन्न होकर लहरों ने गीत गाया था। उसने अपने प्राण गँवा दिए परन्तु ज़िंदगी के खतरे का सामना करने से पीछे नहीं हटा।

Question 5.
घायल बाज को देखकर साँप खुश क्यों हुआ होगा?
Solution:
साँप का शत्रु बाज है चूँकि वो उसका आहार होता है। घायल बाज उसे किसी प्रकार का आघात नहीं पहुँचा सकता था इसलिए घायल बाज को देखकर साँप के लिए खुश होना स्वाभाविक था।

Question 6.
कहानी में से वे पंक्तियाँ चुनकर लिखिए जिनसे स्वतंत्रता की प्रेरणा मिलती हो।
Solution:
कहानी की स्वतंत्रता से संबंधित पंक्तियाँ –

  1. जब तक शरीर में ताकत रही, कोई सुख ऐसा नहीं बचा जिसे न भोगा हो। दूर-दूर तक उडानें भरी हैं, आकाश की असीम ऊँचाइयों को अपने पंखों से नाप आया हूँ।
  2. “आह! काश, मैं सिर्फ एक बार आकाश में उड पाता।”
  3. पर वह समय दूर नहीं है, जब तुम्हारे खून की एक-एक बूँद जिंदगी के अँधेरे में प्रकाश फैलाएगी और साहसी, बहादुर दिलों में स्वतंत्रता और प्रकाश के लिए प्रेम पैदा करेगी।

Question 7.
मानव ने भी हमेशा पक्षियों की तरह उड़ने की इच्छा की है। आज मनुष्य उड़ने की इच्छा किन साधनों से पूरी करता है।
Solution:
मानव ने आदिकाल से ही पक्षियों की तरह उड़ने की इच्छा मन में रखी है। किन्तु शारीरिक असमर्थता की वजह से उड़ नहीं पा रहा था जिसका परिणाम यह हुआ कि मनुष्य हवाई जहाज का आविष्कार कर दिखाया। आज मनुष्य अपने उड़ने की इच्छा की पूर्ति हवाई जहाज, हेलीकॉप्टर, गैस-बैलून आदि से करता है।

भाषा की बात

Question 1.
कहानी में से अपनी पसंद के पाँच मुहावरे चुनकर उनका वाक्यों में प्रयोग कीजिए।
Solution:

  1. भाँप लेना – बच्चों का मुँह देखकर माता जी ने परीक्षा का क्या नतीजा आया होगा यह भाँप लिया।
  2. हिम्मत बाँधना – मित्र के आने पर ही परीक्षा के लिए राहुल की हिम्मत बँधी।
  3. अंतिम साँस गिनना – दादाजी की गिरती साँसें देखकर माता जी ने स्थिति भाँप ली वे कि वे उनकी अंतिम साँस गिन रहे हैं।
  4. मन में आशा जागना – शिक्षिका की कहानी ने मेरे मन में आशा जगा दी।
  5. प्राण हथेली में रखना – सिपाही ने देशवासियों की जान बचाने के लिए अपने प्राणों को हथेली में रख देते हैं।

Question 2.
‘आरामदेह’ शब्द में ‘देह’ प्रत्यय है। यहाँ ‘देह’ ‘देनेवाला’ के अर्थ में प्रयुक्त है। देनेवाला के अर्थ में ‘द’, ‘प्रद’, ‘दाता’, ‘दाई’ आदि का प्रयोग भी होता है, जैसे – सुखद, सुखदाता, सुखदाई, सुखप्रद। उपर्युक्त समानार्थी प्रत्ययों को लेकर दो-दो शब्द बनाइए।
Solution:
प्रत्यय       शब्द
द – सुखद, दुखद
दाता – परामर्शदाता, सुखदाता
दाई – सुखदाई, दुखदाई
देह – विश्रामदेह, लाभदेह, आरामदेह
प्रद – लाभप्रद, हानिप्रद, शिक्षाप्रद

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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 16 पानी की कहानी

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 16 पानी की कहानी are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 16 पानी की कहानी.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Hindi Vasant Chapter 16 पानी की कहानी

प्रश्न-अभ्यास

Question 1. लेखक को ओस की बूँद कहाँ मिली?
Solution: लेखक को बेर की झाड़ी पर ओस की बूँद मिली।

Question 2. ओस की बूँद क्रोध और घृणा से क्यों काँप उठी?
Solution: पेड़ों की जड़ों में निकले रोएँ द्वारा जल की बूँदों को बलपूर्वक धरती के भूगर्भ से खींच लाना व उनको खा जाना याद करते ही बूँद क्रोध व घृणा से काँप उठी।

Question 3. हाइड्रोजन और ऑक्सीजन को पानी ने अपना पूर्वज/पुरखा क्यों कहा?
Solution: जब ब्रह्मांड में पृथ्वी व उसके साथी ग्रहों का उद्भव भी नहीं हुआ था तब ब्रह्मांड में हाइड्रोजन व ऑक्सीजन दो गैसें सूर्यमंडल में लपटों के रूप में विद्यमान थीं। ऑक्सीजन व हाइड्रोजन के बीच रासायनिक क्रिया हुई। दोनों के संयोग से पानी का जन्म हुआ। इसलिए बूँद ने इन दोनों को अपना पूर्वज कहा है।

Question 4. “पानी की कहानी” के आधार पर पानी के जन्म और जीवन-यात्रा का वर्णन अपने शब्दों में कीजिए।
Solution: पानी का जन्म (ह्द्रजन) हाइड्रोजन व (ओषजन) ऑक्सीजन के बीच रासायनिक प्रक्रिया द्वारा होता है। जब ब्रह्मांड में पृथ्वी व उसके साथी ग्रहों का उद्भव भी नहीं हुआ था तब ब्रह्मांड में हाइड्रोजन व ऑक्सीजन दो गैसें सूर्यमंडल में लपटों के रूप में विद्यमान थीं। किसी उल्कापिंड के सूर्य से टकराने से सूर्य के टुकडें कड़े हो गए उन्हीं टुकड़ों में से एक टुकड़ा पृथ्वी रूप में उत्पन्न हुआ और इसी ग्रह में ऑक्सीजन व हाइड्रोजन के बीच रासायनिक क्रिया हुई और दोनों के संयोग से पानी का जन्म हुआ।
सर्वप्रथम बूँद भाप के रूप में पृथ्वी के वातावरण में ईद-गिर्द घूमती रहती है, तत्पश्चात ठोस बर्फ के रूप में विद्यमान हो जाती है। समुद्र से होती हुई वह गर्म-धारा से मिलकर ठोस रूप को त्यागकर जल का रूप धारण कर लेती है।

Question 5. कहानी के अंत और आरंभ के हिस्से को स्वयं पढ़कर देखिए और बताइए कि ओस की बूँद लेखक को आपबीती सुनाते हुए किसकी प्रतीक्षा कर रही थी?
Solution: कहानी के अंत और आरंभ के हिस्से को पढ़कर यह पता चलता है कि ओस की बूँद सूर्य उदय की प्रतीक्षा कर रही थी।

Question 6. समुद्र के तट पर बसे नगरों में अधिक ठंड और अधिक गरमी क्यों नहीं पड़ती?
Solution: समुद्र के तट पर बसे नगरों में अधिक ठंड और अधिक गरमी नहीं पड़ती क्योंकि वहाँ के वातावरण में सदा नमी होती है।

Question 7. पेड़ के भीतर फव्वारा नहीं होता तब पेड़ की जड़ों से पत्ते तक पानी कैसे पहुँचता है? इस क्रिया को वनस्पति शास्त्र में क्या कहते हैं?
Solution: पेड़ के भीतर फव्वारा नहीं होता तब पेड़ की जड़ों से पत्ते तक पानी पहुँचता है क्योंकि पेड़ की जड़ों व तनों में जाइलम और फ्लोएम नामक वाहिकाएँ होती हैं जो पानी जड़ों से पत्तियों तक पहुँचाती हैं। इस क्रिया को वनस्पति शास्त्र में ‘संवहन’ (ट्रांसपाईरेशन) कहते हैं।

भाषा की बात

Question 1. किसी भी क्रिया को पूरी करने में जो भी संज्ञा आदि शब्द संलग्न होते हैं, वे अपनी अलग-अलग भूमिकाओं के अनुसार अलग-अलग कारकों में वाक्य में दिखाई पडते हैं; जैसे – “वह हाथों से शिकार को जकड़ लेती थी।”
जकड़ना क्रिया तभी संपन्न हो पाएगी जब कोई व्यक्ति (वह) जकड़नेवाला हो, कोई वस्तु (शिकार) हो जिसे जकड़ा जाए। इन भूमिकाओं की प्रकृति अलग-अलग है। व्याकरण में ये भूमिकाएँ कारकों के अलग-अलग भेदों; जैसे – कर्ता, कर्म, करण आदि से स्पष्ट होती हैं।
अपनी पाठ्यपुस्तक से इस प्रकार के पाँच और उदाहरण खोजकर लिखिए और उन्हें भलीभाँति परिभाषित कीजिए।
Solution:

  1. आगे एक और बूँद मेरा हाथ पकड़कर ऊपर खींच रही थी।
    पकड़कर – सबंध कारक
  2. हम बड़ी तेजी से बाहर फेंक दिए गए।
    तेज़ी से – अपादान कारक
  3. मैं प्रति क्षण उसमें से निकल भागने की चेष्टा में लगी रहती थी।
    मैं – कर्ता
  4. वह चाकू से फल काटकर खाता है।
    चाकू से – करण कारक
  5. बदलू लाख से चूड़ियाँ बनाता है।
    लाख से – करण कारक

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