Words and Expressions Class 9 Solutions Unit 4

Words and Expressions Class 9 Solutions Unit 4

Look at the pictures and identify who they are. Write their names in the given spaces. The quotes against each picture may also help you recognise them.
Words and Expressions Class 9 Solutions Unit 4 IMG1
How do the quotes reflect the beautiful mind of the personalities mentioned? Discuss in pairs of four, jot down your points, and then present to the class.
Rabindra Nath Tagore – Happiness is a state of mind that a man can easily switch over to even amidst great chagrin. But to achieve simplicity is a far difficult thing because among the five elements the human body is constituted of, one is sky which propels to aspire for comfort, ease and luxury more and more marring the scope of simplicity.

Albert Einstein – Character is a huge mirror in which the attitudinal strengths and weaknesses of a person are reflected life-like size. Lacunae in attitude leads to lacunae in character. It is rightly said that attitudes are the building material of character.

Helen Keller – What appeals to our sight organ is considered to be beautiful but the real beauty is abstract. It can neither be touched, nor be seen. It is something divine which can be felt through heart. Beauty in real sense of the term is a heavenly experience which fills the soul with satiety.

Subhash Chandra Bose – The idea of‘truth and non-violence’ did not die with the sad demise of M. Gandhi, nor did the idea of‘freedom is our birthright’ die with Tilak. Instead these ideas were incarnated in thousand lives. Innumerable people even today believe in the maxim and follow them. S.C. Bose was cent-per cent right to state this.

Reading Comprehension:

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Text – I

The World as I See It:
In my opinion, the present symptoms of decadence are explained by the fact that the development of industry and machinery has made the struggle for existence very much more severe, greatly to the detriment of the free development of the individual. But the development of machinery means that less and less work is needed from the individual for the satisfaction of the community’s needs.

A planned division of labour is becoming more and more of a crying necessity and this division will lead to the material security of the individual. This security and the spare time and energy which the individual will have at his command can be made to further his development. In this way the community may regain its health, and we will hope that future historians will explain the morbid symptoms of present-day society as the childhood ailments of an aspiring humanity, due entirely to the excessive speed at which civilisation was advancing.
(An extract from The World As I See It by A. Einstein)

Question 1.
What is responsible for the present degradation of individual development?
Development of industry and machinery which has made the struggle for existence very much severe.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of development in relation to individuals?
Individual development means improving one’s talents, potential through better awareness and identity which, in turn, helps in improving the quality of life.

Question 3.
What is the ‘planned division of labour’? How will it be helpful in human development?
Planned division of labour means separation of a work process into a number of task with each task performed by separate individual or a group. The work force can further be divided into skilled and unskilled labour.
This would benefit human development as there would be higher productivity, greater co-operation, lower cost and time-efficiency.

Question 4.
What does the phrase ‘symptoms of decadence’ mean in the opening line?
(a) diagnosis of degradation
(b) warning signs of depravity
(c) signs of prosperity
(d) diagnosis of indifference
(b) warning signs of depravity

Question 5.
The phrase ‘crying necessity’ in the opening paragraph means:
(a) urgent need
(b) weeping need
(c) sad need
(d) average need
(a) urgent need

Question 6.
Circle the odd one out
(a) presence, (distance), existence, being, alive
(b) possible, feasible, probable, (unthinkable) obtainable
(c) violence, assault, roughness, (passivity) fierceness
(d) conflict, contest, contention, rivalry, (accord)
(e) consolation, compassion, (annoyance), sympathy, support.

Text – II

Read the following text and answer the questions.
When Einstein wrote to Gandhi:
In 1931, Albert Einstein wrote the following short letter of admiration to another of the world’s greatest minds, Mohandas Gandhi. Despite their intentions, the pair never met in person.
Respected Mr. Gandhi,
I use the presence of your friend in our home to send you these, lines. You have shown through your words, that it is possible to succeed without violence even with those who have not discarded the method of violence. We may hope that your example will spread beyond the borders of the country, and will help to establish an international authority, respected by all, that will take decisions and replace war conflicts. With sincere admiration Yours
(Signed, ‘A. Einstein’)
I hope that I will be able to meet you face to face someday.
October 18, 1931 DEAR FRIEND,
I was delighted to have your beautiful letter sent through Sundaram. It is great consolation to me that the work I am doing finds favour in your sight. I do indeed wish that we could meet face to face and that too in India at my Ashram.
Yours Sincerely (Signed, ‘M.K Gandhi0
(Source: Letters of Note, Volume 2, by Shaun Usher)

Question 1. Albert
Einstein admired M. K. Gandhi because: [tick (✓) the right answer]
(a) Gandhi discarded the method of violence.
(b) Gandhi showed that it is possible to succeed without violence with those vrho have discarded the method of violence.
(c) Gandhi showed that it is possible to succeed without violence only with those who have discarded the method of violence.
(d) Gandhi showed that it is possible to succeed without violence with all irrespective of whether they have continued or discarded the method of violence.

Question 2.
Where did Gandhi wish to meet Einstein? [tick (✓) the right answer]
(a) his residence in London
(b) his Ashram in India
(c) his Ashram in London
(d) during his tour to London

Question 3.
Why does Einstein want Gandhi’s example to go beyond India?
Einstein wanted-Gandhi’s example to go beyond India, as it would help to establish an international authority respected by all, that will take decisions and replace war conflicts.

Question 4.
You have read the chapter and the exchange of letters between A. Einstein and M. K. Gandhi. What similarities do you find in the ideas of both the personalities?
Both were pacifists, wanted peace and tranquility among humans and nations. Both wanted to work for humanity and that too without any self interest.

Question 5.
Find the opposites of the words given below from Einstein’s letter.
(a) impossible ____________
(b) fail ____________
(c) peace ____________
(d) absence ____________
(e) enemy ____________
(a) possible
(b) succeed
(c) war
(d) presence
(e) friend

Question 6.
In the context of Gandhi’s response to Einstein’s letter, ‘finds favour in your sight’ means:
(a) satisfied you
(b) delighted you
(c) appreciated by you
(d) not accepted by you
(c) appreciated by you

Text – III

If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or, being hated, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise;

If you can dream – and not make dreams your master;
If you can think – and not make thoughts your aim; If you can meet with triumph and disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to broken,
And stoop and build ’em up with wornout tools;

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on”;

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings – nor lose the common touch;
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And-which is more-you’ll be a Man, my son!
– Rudyard Kipling

Question 1.
Which lines in the poem tell us to have self control, a clear head and not to become bitter when people speak against us? Stanza 1
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about don’t deal in lies,
Or, being hated, don’t give way to hating.

Question 2.
One must be just as graceful in losing as he is in winning.
What are the two words in the poem that can replace the underlined ones? Stanza 2
Losing – disaster; winning – triumph

Question 3.
In the third stanza what does the poet mean by ‘And lose, and start again’?
‘And lose, and start again’
According to the poet, the above lines means if ever in the course of your life there comes a situation where you lose everything that you earned with hardships. Then don’t let yourself bowed down by the situation instead you decide to face the challenging situation by rebuilding from the scratch; prove that you are a man in real sense.

Question 4.
There is a necessity to treat all people equally and amidst people we should not lose our self ‘who we are’? How has the poet expressed this in the fourth stanza?
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue; or walk with kings-nor lose the common touch.

Question 5.
List two things from each stanza that we can do to make the Earth ours, as given in the poem.
I – If a person has patience and does not become bitter when others speak against him.
II – If a person can gracefully accept his defeat just as his victory and can rebuild what he has lost without lamenting.
III – If a person can risk all his life’s achievement and he keeps his will-power intact till the end.
IV – If a person treats all people equally irrespective of their appearance, wealth and religion and if he earns everyone’s trust. (Take Any Two)
A person can make the Earth his in all the above situations.


Question 1.
Read the paragraphs mentioned against each explanation and find out the words in that paragraph which best match the explanation given. Refer to the chapter ‘A Truly Beautiful Mind’ given in your textbook, Beehive.
(a) A word used disapprovingly to talk about a person who is unusual and doesn’t behave like others. ____________ (paragraph 1)
(b) Taking part in an activity for pleasure, not as a job. ____________ (paragraph 3)
(c) Respecting and allowing many different types of beliefs or behaviour. ____________ (paragraph 5)
(d) A person who is lacking in or hostile or smugly indifferent to cultural values, intellectual pursuits, etc. ____________ (paragraph 7)
(e) Relating to work that needs special training or education. ____________ (paragraph 8)
(a) Freak
(b) Amateur
(c) Liberal
(d) Philistine
(e) Expert

Question 2.
Einstein was a world citizen.
This means he does not belong to one country because his contributions to science and the society have moved beyond the borders of his country.
‘World’ has different meanings in a variety of contexts.
Read the sentences given below and find out the meanings of ‘world’ in each sentence.
(а) My mother means the world to me.
(b) Vasco da Gama sailed round the world.
(c) He is a big name in the world of fashion.
(d) Stars from the sporting and artistic worlds participated in the function.
(e) She is a simple person in real world as well as in the movies.
(a) World means here – everything.
(b) Round the world – entire or whole world.
(c) World of fashion – Field of fasliion.
(d) Area or field of sports and art.
(e) Here world means (in real) life.


Participle Clause:
You have read about and done exercises on participle clauses (Beehive, p. 52). We know that participle clause is a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and verb in the main clause have the same subject.

Waiting for John, I made some tea.

Question 1.
Choose the correct option for the sentences below.
(a) Waiting for the doctor, ____________
[a big noise scared everybody, Dave read a magazine, the alarm went off]
(b) ____________ in the jungle, George had to find the way out on his own. [having lost, lost, losing]
(c) ____________ our pottery will last for generations. [treating with care/you treat with care/ treated with care]
(d) ____________ a holiday, all the banks were closed. [having been/been/ being]
(e) ____________ for so long, he had lost all hope.
[being unemployed/unemployed/ having been unemployed]
(a) Dave read a magazine
(b) Lost
(c) Treated with care
(d) Being
(e) Having been unemployed

Question 2.
Join the following sentences using a present-participle as given in the example.
We walked along the footpath. We saw an accident.
Walking along the footpath, we saw an accident.
(Note: Out of the two actions, the one which takes place first is changed into present participle.)
(a) He stood by the side of a temple. He asked people to go in.
(b) She came out of the room. She greeted the visitors.
(c) He heard the news. He started crying.
(d) He found the lock broken. He rang up the Police.
(e) He felt sleepy. He went to bed.
(a) Standing by the side of a temple, he asked people to go in.
(b) Coming out of the room, she greeted the visitors.
(c) Hearing the news, he started crying.
(d) Finding the lock broken, he rang up the police.
(e) Feeling sleepy, he went to bed.


There is an error in each line. Underline the incorrect word and write the correct word in the blank given. The first one has been done for you as an example.
I entred the manager’s office and sat down, entered
I have just lost five hundred rupees and I felt very upset.
(a) _______ “I leave the money in my desk,” I said, (b) _______“and it is not there now”. The manager was very sympathetic but he can do nothing. (c) _______ “Everyone loses money theses days,” (d) _______ he said. He start to complain about this wicked world, (e) _______ but is interrupted by a knock at the door, (f) _______.
(a) had
(b) left
(c) could
(d) these
(e) started
(f) was.


Listen to the story given below. The teacher or your classmate will read the story aloud. Listen to it carefully and then answer the questions that follow.
Gautama Buddha was journeying through the Kosala region. He was warned not to pass through the deep jungle, as it Was the den of a famous robber chief, Angulimala. He was the terror of the whole countryside. He lived by plundering travellers and feared no one. He had committed many murders. All attempts to capture the inhuman Angulimala had failed. So he continued his crimes unpunished. The people of Kosala pleaded with the Buddha not to expose himself to the dangers of the robber’s territory.

But Gautama Buddha knew no fear. The warnings of the people of Kosala did not affect him. He made his way into the jungle. Angulimala got enraged at this boldness. He was determined to kill the intruder. But when he saw the Buddha, calm and self- possessed, and heard his words of kindness, the robber hesitated. His arm, which had been uplifted to kill, fell helpless by his side. His wrath cooled, and he knelt down before the Buddha. He confessed all his sins and declared his faith in the Buddha. When the people saw the new disciple following his Master, they were amazed and could not believe that this was the ferocious man who had been a terror for so long. Angulimala became a monk. His past was forgotten, and he was widely respected for his holiness.

Question 1.
Why did the people of Kosala warn the Buddha hot to go into the jungle?
As it was the den of a famous robber chief, Angulimala.

Question 2.
Why was Angulimala considered to be a terror?
Because he plundered travellers, feared no one, committed many murders and he could not have been captured. ,

Question 3.
What enraged Angulimala when he saw the Buddha?
Angulimala got enraged at the boldness of the Buddha.

Question 4.
Why did the robber hesitate to kill the Buddha?
Buddha’s calm, self possessed personality and his words of kindness made the robber hesitant to kill him.

Question 5.
What kind of transformation took place in Angulimala?
He confessed his sins, declared his faith in Buddha and became a monk.

Question 6.
Why did people start respecting Angulimala?
Because of his holiness.


A debate competition is being organised in your school. Take a stand for or against this statement: “Our happiness in life depends entirely on our mental attitude.” Prepare an outline of the main points in the order in which you wish to present them (in about 100 words), giving reasons for your point of view.

  • Debate is a contest between two speakers or two groups of speakers to show skill and ability in arguing.
  • A proposition, a question or a problem is required for this purpose, which can be spoken for or against.
  • To participate in a debate, one must prepare for it. So, one must prepare an outline of the main points in the order in which one is going to argue.
  • There are the limitations of time (only 5 to 6 minutes are allowed).
  • The speaker addresses the audience.
  • Every topic/subject has its own vocabulary. These must be learnt.
  • The speaker addresses’the Chair (Mr President/ Madam), ‘submits’ an argument, ‘appeals’ for sympathetic understanding and support, ‘questions’ the opponent’s views and ‘concludes’ an argument.

(i) Write the outline of the main points, then make a presentation in the class.
Happiness : a state of mind.

(i) Introduce the topic with a quotation.
“For every minute you are angry, you lose 60 seconds of happiness.”

(iii) Highlight the main points.

  • Positive attitude leads to a happy life.
  • Lamenting is useless once the time has passed.
  • We need to focus on our present rather than on our past or future.
  • We should know how to take advantage of our present situation effectively.
  • Success lies in the right and focussed attitude.
  • God created a peace loving and happy man, we ourselves, have caused all the pain that we suffer now.
  • Though, our mind evolves to be the most advanced. Yet, we are the most unsatisfied race.
  • This process of evolution and race to acquire all material things have made us forget the main and essential aim i.e. to spread love, humanity and peace.
  • Instead, we face threat of world wars, etc.
  • The question arises ‘What went wrong in the process of evolution ?’

(iv) Elaborate the points by arguing logically and convincingly.

  • We need to understand the problem of why we despite being the most advanced race, face the threat of extinction from our own kind. Why is there so much of dissatisfaction, hatred, anger, hunger for power, money etc., why are we unhappy ?
  • It is all because our state of mind is continuously degrading from being unhappy to angry and dissatisfied.
  • The answer lies in the understanding of our attitude and how to change it. We can achieve whatever we wish to if we have a positive state of mind.
  • We can achieve the impossible just like many renowned personalities who have surprised the world with their works.
  • All it took was a positive attitude.

(v) Give your opinion in the concluding paragraph.
I wholeheartedly support the statement that ‘our happiness in life depends entirely on our mental attitude’. I can therefore, conclude that happiness can * be attained without any effort. We simply need to compose our mind and redirect our attitude.


→ In groups of four, discuss in favour of or against the topic:
“New technology is common, New thinking is rare.”

→ Each group presents their points and the whole class brainstorms on the topic.

→ Jot down all the points discussed.

→ Write an argumentative article giving logical and relevant reasons along with your points of view.
Argumentative article on – ‘New technology is common; New thinking is rare’.
From the time immemorial, the man has gradually progressed to the present day culture and civilization. ‘Necessity’ compelled him to think of new ways to work faster and comparatively more easily. As a result, human history is replete with discoveries and inventions which enhanced the knowledge of mankind and brought comforts and ease in every sphere of life. But it is heart rending to know that new thinking has not been promoted during the passage of evolution.

Still being on the verge of new technology explosion, the man shudders to promote new thinking. Not only in schools and colleges but also at home with their parents and grandparents, children are taught to obey blindly and surprisingly enough, children who do so are appreciated. Children ane not given free hand to think on their own something new, novel or original. This mindset of the general people has led to a disasterous pass. Cramming and vomiting have become the order of the day. My contention is simple and direct – let the new wings spread in freedom and allow them to conjecture the world of their own. This will automatically grant liberty to one and all; and will make the world a better place to live in.


You have read about Stephen Hawking in Class VIII. Go through the text once again and gather information about his genius. You can also search web resources. Follow the steps given below and then write what made Hawking a genius.
(i) Who is “a genius?
A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.

(ii) What are the attributes that make a person a genius?
As per Jim Westergren, following 24 qualities are the characteristics of all the geniues of the world; they are:

  • drive
  • courage
  • devotion
  • knowledge
  • honesty
  • optimism
  • ability to judge
  • enthusiasm
  • willingness to take chances
  • dynamic energy
  • enterprise
  • persuasion
  • out-goingness
  • ability to communicate
  • patience
  • perception
  • perfectionism
  • sense of humour
  • versatality
  • adaptability
  • curiosity
  • individualism
  • idealism; and
  • imagination.

Westergren believes that geniuses can be made; they are not bom.

(iii) How is Stephen Hawking a genius?
Some incidents and Hawking’s own statements are hereby quoted to prove that he was genius.

  • Hawking eventually put Newton’s gravitational theories to the test in 2007.
  • He wanted to show that disability is no bar to achievement.
  • He believed that the life on the earth is at an ever- increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster.
  • He said that artificial intelligence could contribute to the eradication of disease and poverty.
  • He also said artificial intelligence could be the biggest event in the history of civilization.
  • He further opined that artificial intelligence will also bring dangers.

(iv) What is he famous for?
The legendary physicist, Stephen Hawking’ helped explain the behaviour of black holes and even examined the origin of the universe. He brought together several different but equally fundamental fields of physical theory : gravitation, cosmology, quantum theory, thermodynamics and information theory. He discovered that the sun causes space to curve which holds the earth in orbit. He discovered that the total entropy of the universe can only increase; never can decrease. According to quantum theory, allegedly empty space is in fact far from being a void.
These are some of things he is famous for.

(v) What books has he written?
Most popular books written by Hawking are:

  • A Brief History of Time
  • The Grand Design
  • The Theory of Everything
  • A Briefer History of Time
  • George’s Secret Key to the Universe
  • My Brief History
  • George and the Big Bang
  • The Nature of Space and Time
  • God Created the Integers
  • The Future of Space Time etc.

(vi) Refer to the obituaries written by people on him and find out his inspiring qualities.
Inspiring things that Hawking taught mankind.

  • Intelligence is not your IQ.
  • Know how little you know.
  • There is a way out of a Black Hole.
  • Mistakes are important.
  • Intellectual show boating is stupid.
  • Be curious.
  • Never believe the course of your me is pre-destined.
  • Be persistent.
  • Never underestimate yourself.
  • Be grateful.

Words and Expressions Class 9 Solutions

Class 9 English Main Course Book

Unit 1 People

Unit 2 Adventure

Unit 3 Environment

Unit 4 The Class IX Radio and Video Show

Unit 5 Mystery

Unit 6 Children

Unit 7 Sports and Games

Class 9 English Workbook