Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 6 The Hundred Dresses-II
In the texts ‘The Hundred Dresses-I and II’, Wanda was seen as different by other girls. But in the dresses game she proved her talent and got recognition. We are all unique and we have our strengths. Have you ever met a person who is very different than you, who thinks and enjoys doing things differently ? Conduct a survey in the class to find out the different talents that your classmates have and discuss these so as to appreciate each other.
Chandan Choudhary was the most peculiar student of my class. From class one to class eight, we sat and studied together but I could not learn his ways. At any point of time he was found doing mischievous or criminal activities; still he was in the good book of our class teacher. Also he never stood second; he always stood first. Whether I saw him outside or inside his home or school; I never caught him studying with concentration. When did he study was a question I could never ask; nor did he tell. To this day when I think about him, surprise encompasses me in its grip.
Conduct survey yourself.
You have read how Wanda was passionate about her talent and pursued it in spite of so many hurdles. Wangari Mathai, the Nobel Prize winner, is another person who fought a battle to save the environment. She had a humble start but she dreamt big and succeeded.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
When we said we wanted to plant fifteen million trees, a forester laughed and said we could have as many seedlings as we wanted because he was convinced that we could not plant that many trees. Before too long, he had to withdraw that offer because we were collecting more trees than he could give away free of charge. But we didn’t have the money. We decided that we could produce the seedlings ourselves. We would go and collect seeds from trees, come back and plant them the way women planted other seeds – beans, corn, and other grains. And so the women actually developed forestry management techniques, using “appropriate technology” to fit their needs. Here is the basic method – take a pot, put in the soil, and put in the seeds. Put the pot in an elevated position so that the chickens and the goats don’t come and eat the seedlings.
Ordaining all the inventive techniques that the women developed, for example, sometimes trees produce seeds carried by the wind. These germinate in the fields with the first rain. It was very interesting to see a woman cultivating a field with a small container of water. But, she was cultivating weeds! She had learned that among these weeds were also tree seedlings and that she could pick the seedlings and put them in a container. In the evening, she went home with several hundred seedling trees! These techniques developed by the women became extremely helpful. We planted more than twenty million trees in Kenya alone. In other African countries, we have not kept records.
Trees are alive, so we react to them in very different ways. Quite often, we get attached to a tree, because it gives us food and fodder for our fires. It is such a friendly thing. When you plant a tree and you see it grow, something happens to you. You want to protect it, and you value it. I have seen people really change and look at trees very differently from the way they would in the past. The other thing is that a lot of people do not see that there are no trees until they open their eyes, and realise that the land is naked. They begin to see that while rain can be a blessing, it can also be a curse, because when it comes and you have not protected your soil, it carries the soil away with it. And this is rich soil in which you should be growing your food, then they see the immediate relationship between a person and the environment. It is wonderful to see that transformation, and that is what sustains the movement!
(Source: ‘Speak Truth to Power’ Wangari Mathai)
A forester laughs when Wangari Mathai says that they wanted to plant 15 million trees. Why did the forester react in this manner ?
The forester was convinced that Wangari Mathai and her group could not plant so many trees. This is why he reacted in this manner.
What role does money play in the given extract?
For lack of money Wangari Mathai could not buy the seedlings. Hence she decided to produce seedlings themselves fetching the seeds directly from the trees.
“When you plant a tree and you see it grow, something happens to you.” Explain what do you understand by the above quote.
When we plant a tree and see it grow, we want to protect it and value it. Our outlook about trees go stark change – perhaps from indifference to a close relationship. .
“Rain can be a blessing and a curse.” Analyse how nature can be both a blessing and a curse.
If the soil is held together by planting trees, rain can be a blessing, for; it will not erode the upper layer of the fertile soil. But rain can prove fatal in case the upper layer of the soil erodes because it vill wash away its fertility.
“It is wonderful to see that transformation.”
What is the ‘transformation’ the author is talking about here?
People, usually, remain indifferent or cruel to trees but when they plant a tree, they value and protect it because they begin to feel a bond between the tree, (the environment) and their own survival. An emotional attachment too is developed far from its utility. The author here refers to this transformation.
When people work together they put in their combined efforts to succeed. This idea of collaborative working creates life long bonding for the people. Read the following passage and find out how people in remote areas of Odisha get together to show their gratitude to nature by observing ‘bijun parab’ (beej parba) and strengthen their life cycle.
There will always be a seed for everyone. In the early summer month of April, the forests’ people also depend on the foods harvested earlier on in the year – millets, pulses, tubers, dried fruits, roots and tubers. All these seeds have been safeguarded, some saved to be grown in the next season, while others have been stored to be eaten in months such as these. It is in this month that various ‘Kondh’ communities organise the Bijun Parab or seed festival.
The festival begins with the mud walls of the home painted, the mud and cow dung floors swept and freshened, and, most importantly, the selecting of seeds. Women gather in the courtyard, cleaning the seeds from the husks, chatting with each other, shooing away the children who mill about, witnessing and participating in the seasonal celebration. Saving seeds over all these months and seasons has taken much effort – guarding the seeds from insects, animals and moisture as well as one’s own greed. Each one has a different technique, whether grinding up neem leaves and mixing it with the seeds as an insecticide or layering the seed basket with cow dung as disinfectant. Some women have managed to save more seeds, some just a little and there are some houses where pests and insects managed to get the best of the seeds and these families have not saved any. Nonetheless, everyone participates in this festival.
(Source: ‘There will always be a seed for everyone’ by Aditi Pinto, The Hindu, April 23, 2017)
Answer the following questions:
(a) When is the seed festival celebrated in Odisha?
(b) Which are the seeds preserved by the Kondhs?
(c) Why are the seeds preserved?
(d) How do they celebrate the festival?
(e) How are the seeds preserved?
(a) The seed festival is celebrated in the early summer month of April in Odisha.
(b) The seeds are – millets, pulses, tubers, dried fruits, roots and tubers.
(c) All these seeds have been preserved; some have been stored to be eaten in these months while others have been preserved to be grown in the next season.
(d) Mud walls are painted and cow dung floors are swept. They select the seeds. Women gather in the courtyard and clean the husks from the seeds. While doing so, they chat and shoo away children.
(e) Each one has a different technique to preserve : some mix neem leaves powder; some layer the basket with cow dung.
Tick the correct answer.
“Nonetheless, everyone participates in the festival”, means –
(a) However, people are invited to participate in the festival ( )
(b) Still, Kondhs who have seeds, participate in the festival ( )
(c) Although some families have not saved the seeds yet they participate in the festival ( )
(d) Anyway, people are asked to participate in the festival ( )
How is the seed festival of Odisha a perfect example of community participation? Find words for ‘Bijun Parab’ in your language.
The seed festival of Odisha is really a perfect example of community participation. Even those who have sufficient stock for their future use; participate in the festival actively. They separate the husks from seeds and preserve in the way that suits them – either using neem leaves powder or cow dung. Words for ‘Bijun Parab’ is ‘Beej Parab’
Make ten words (of five or more letters) from the word below.
The meanings of some words are given below which will help you to find out the words.
(a) fright s – – – –
(b) artistic words c – – – –
(c) fertiliser – – n – – –
(d) not certain u – s – –
(e) false – n – – u –
(f) one’s essential characteristic or temperament
(g) a small river s – – – – m
(h) ways or methods m – – n –
(i) wooden box c – – – e
(j) border enclosing a picture – r – m –
(a) s c a r e
(b) c r a f t
(c) m a n u r e
(d) u n s u r e
(e) u n t r u e
(f) n a t u r e
(h) m a n n e r
(i) c r a t e
(j) f r a m e
Read the following sentences and match column A with column B to complete the sentences. Also use appropriate punctuation, if needed.
|Column A||Column B|
|1. My sister was so scared, she couldn’t watch the drama||1. we can expect rain later on.|
|2. Although most critics agreed that the theatre performance was his best ever||2. in this one he’s definitely the good guy.|
|3. On our way back, we thought although snow is now unlikely||3. whereas I didn’t find it frightening at all.|
|4. On reaching home, my sister wanted me to help her with her science project||4. I was rather disappointed by his performance.|
|5. Whereas, in most of his other plays he plays the role of a villain||5. but I told her to ask her friend.|
- Taj Mahal, which was built by Shahjahan, is one of the wonders of the world.
- It was Lata Mangeshkar who sang this song.
- Arnabh, whose sister works in television, is a good debater.
- It’s the Internet that gives us a lot of information.
The underlined parts of the sentences are relative clauses. The relative clauses begin with “which’, ‘who’, ‘whose’, and ‘that’.
Put in the relative clauses and write the sentences.
Traffic light suddenly went” out of order. It caused a traffic jam.
Traffic light, which suddenly went out of order, caused a traffic jam.
(a) Mary wrote a poem. It bagged the first prize in the creative writing competition.
The poem _______________
(b) Mr. Goel is seriously ill, so he could not go to office.
Mr. Goel _______________
(c) Simran gave a dance programme yesterday, and it’s being appreciated by everybody.
The dance programme _______________.
(d) You are going to meet Amit tomorrow, he is an active member of our school’s environment club.
You are going to meet Amit tomorrow _______________.
(e) The man is rather strange. He lives next door.
The man _______________.
(f) Anu’s name was missed off the volleyball players’ list, so he was very unhappy.
(a) The. poem that Mary wrote, bagged the first prize in the creative writing competition.
(b) Mr. Goel who is seriously ill, could not go to office.
(c) The dance programme which Simran gave yesterday, is being appreciated by everybody.
(d) You are going to meet Amit tomorrow who is an active member of our school’s environment club.
(e) The man who lives next door, is rather strange.
(f) Anu whose name was missed off the volley ball player’s list, was very unhappy.
Some words in the following paragraphs are missing. Choose and insert the words given in the bracket.
(of, around, into, the, and,
above, from, to, so, against, its)
|Line No.||Before||Word inserted||After|
Choose the punctuation mark that can be used in the blank place in each sentence. The punctuation mark does not include the brackets.
(а) Electricity has two main uses _______ industrial and domestic.
(b) ‘When Mahua comes,’ she said _______ ‘Anand always goes to meet her.’
(c) ‘I wonder when will they come’ _______ he said.
(d) We decided to have rest _______ It was too hot to go any further.
Ask the teacher or a peer to read aloud the following passage. The passage can be read aloud more than once.
→ Notice the theme and style of writing.
→ Take down notes while listening. Then using your notes, tell your partner the summary of what you have heard.
My great aunt Doluma had “tasted” a police lathi- charge during the freedom struggle. I knew her as an old woman in a spotless white khadi sari, with cropped grey hair, black-rimmed glasses, her lips stained with paan. Her real name was Dr Phulrenu Guha. After she died, we discovered she had received a doctorate from Sorbonne in 1938. Most of us just knew her as Doluma. I called her mantrithakurma or minister-grandmother because she had once held a post in the Union Government of India.
I won’t pretend she was the cuddly grandma who told us fairy tales. She hopped on and off jeeps even in her 80s and went on the campaign trail in rural Bengal. She was blunt, out spoken and no nonsense.
(Source: ‘Have you had your dose of vitamin’ P. Sandip Roy, livemint, Saturday, 16 March, 2019)
Theme and style
Theme of writing is very simple – to describe doluma, the author’s great aunt but it appears he is not closely attached to her doluma. The author seems to tell about her certain things, he himself did not approve of. “Lips stained with paan” and “hopping on and off jeeps’ two things, the author perhaps despises about her. The author also tells us that the Great aunt was ‘blunt, outsspoken and no nonsense’
So far style of the writing in concerned, it is impersonal in nature. The author keeps himself aloof from this writing. Words and diction employed are simple, and easily understandable. Ideas expressed are clear, conspicuous and direct. No far fetched simile or metaphor has been used unnecessarily.
Great aunt Doluma:
- tasted lathi charge in freedom struggle.
- wore Khadi Sari and grey hair.
- real name Dr. Phulrenu Guha.
- Doctorate from Sorbonne in 1938
- author called her mantrithakurma.
- She was not cuddly; nor told fairy tales.
- hopped off and on jeeps in her 80s.
- She was blunt, outspoken and no nonsense.
Popularly known as Doluma, Phulrenu Guha received doctorate from Sorbonne in .1938. She was the author’s great aunt who had tasted lathi charge in freedom struggle; her dress was simple and she was straightforward. Her lips were stained with paan. She had been a minister in the government. She could hop even in her 80s and participate in a campaign.
Now, talk to your parents, grandparents, and community members. Collect such stories. Choose one personality whom you liked the most and write a passage on the person. Then share it with your classmates. You can use the following words while describing their character.
gracefulness – compassionate – determination
agility – humility – affectionate
sympathetic – fellow – feeling
unassuming – generous – amiable
impartial – rational – considerate – courageous
The Gurkha lad hailing from Nepal seems to me to be the most interesting character. He lives here alone and guards the gate of our residential complex. He is graceful in his words, compassionate in action and agile in times of emergency. His humility and determination is known all around my colony When somebody tries £o enter the gate without any right; he becomes unassuming and raises the alarm. His naipe is Gajendra Gurung. Very peculiar thing about him is that he is computer savvy. He is so rational that he does not allow a weaker person to be beaten or defeated by some anti social elements.
Once at the wee hours of the night, some miscreants attempted to enter the gate stealthily but due to his alertness, the mission of the anti social elements were defeated
and they landed behind the bars. He is generous, courageous and considerate. His amicable nature wins over one and all.
You notice in your day-to-day life people from different cultures, religions, languages, ethnic groups, etc. India is one such country with lots of diversity and we respect one andther. This promotes harmony and peace among people. Given below are a few illustrations. They belong to different states. Collect information about the cultural diversity of the States/UTs of our country and write it in the box given below.
Cultural diversity of the states/UTs. of our country.
Rajasthan : People in Rajasthan speak Rajasthani; they wear dhoti-kurta or ghaghra choli. Their important festival is Deepawali. Dal bati churma is their favourite dish.
Maharashtra : People in Maharashtra speak Marathi; they wear dhoti-kurta-jacket or saree blouse. Ganeshotsav is their main festival. Modak and pitha are their favourite dish.
Gujarat: People in Gujarat speak Gujrati; Kediyu chorn is their special dress. Their main festival is Durga Puja. Thepla, dhokla etc are their favourite dishes.
Punjab : People in Punjab speak punjabi. Male members wear dhoti kurta and female members, salwar-suit. Vaishakhi and Lohri are their important festivals. They love to eat Makke di roti and sarso da saag.
Delhi : People in Delhi speak hindi; they wear modem dress like paint-shirt, suit etc. Durga Puja and Chhath are their main festivals. They like to eat Paratha and pickles.
Bengal: People speak Bengali; wear dhoti kurta and their important festival is Durga Puja. Machhi bhat is their favourite food.
Assam : People in Assam speak Assamese. Mekhela-chador is their special dress. Bihu is their main festival. Pitha, Otenga jhul etc are their special food.
Kerala: People in Kerala speak Malyalam. Lungi or Kalli Mundu is their usual dress. Onam is their main festival. Idli, dosa, Sambhar, Uttapam, Upma etc. are their favourite dishes.
Kashmir: People in Kashmir speak Dogri. Their main dress is pheran. Eid-ul-Fitr is their main festival. Rajma, alo-dam, pulao are their favourite dishes.
Write a speech on the topic ‘Treat others the way you would like to be treated by others’. You may take the help of ‘process approach’ to writing given in Unit I.
Respected Principal Sir, esteemed teachers and my dear friends,
I feel honoured to have been given an opportunity to speak before you on the topic ‘Treat others the way you would like to be treated by others’. There is hardly anyone on the surface of this planet who would despise decency in words, deeds and actions. The proverb ‘what goes around, comes around’ propounds the theory that what we throw into the universe comes back to us. If we throw good things into the universe, good things will come back to us and vice versa.
We should always remember that we like to be treated nicely by our friends, acquaintances and relatives but due to vanity of strength of money, power or body do not like to treat others nicely. Here the problem arises. The language of love and respect is peculiar; even the animals can understands and reciprocate suitably. Also a child is born with love in his heart; not domination. When we know that love wins over others and domination separates us; why not opt for love ? Niceties are the only things which can pave the way to success.
Farmers are a community who work together and share a common thread of living. They are largely dependent on the blessings as well as vagaries of nature.
Today, farmers are facing problems due to many reasons. Work in groups of four and prepare a project on the issues related to the agrarian stress. You can interview farmers in your area to get a true account of their problems and their solutions as well.
You can keep in mind the following reasons:
- Climate change and natural calamities
- Rise in prices of seeds, manure, etc.
- Social marginalisation
- Deprivation of economic benefits
- Low yield
- Government policies
- Debt trap
- Lack of facilities like irrigation, electricity
Share your findings with your classmates, highlighting the important points of your project.
Whichever part of the country farmers might be living at; so far their agrarian stress and dependence on the blessings and vagaries of nature are concerned; it is never different. But apart from nature, there are other factors too which are responsible for the misery and poverty of these people.
(1) Climate change and natural calamities : Due to wide range demand for houses to live in, the agriculturable land is contracting at a rapid speed due to deforestation. The existence of nature is being tried to be annihilated. This has begun to demonstrate its devastating effect known as climate change. Climate change has aggravated the difficulties of the farmers.
(2) Price hike of seeds and manures : To grow crops on any arable piece of land, seeds (of high order) and manure play an important role. Price hike of these necessary items makes the farmers handicap as they have very limited sources of income to be invested. Price hike of commodities other than agriculture related products does not irk the consumer much but price hike of agriculture related products falls heavy an their pockets.
Social marginalisation : Living a life of wants and scarcity, farmers in India remain at the marginal point of the society. Since they go to their fields early and come back late at night; they usually get cut off from the mainstream. As a result the Government’s newly announced schemes and policies remain unknown to them. Since their income in meagre and they have have no time to teach or spend time with children they are always socially marginalised.
Deprivation of economic benefits : Most farmers in India are educated – not by choice but by force. Unable to pay the admission fees, school fees and buy every year new books and dresses; they prefer to keep their children away from schools. Consequently, they remain unaware about the new schemes of the government for their well and thus remain deprived of its benefits.
Low Yield : Like gamling, agriculture is a matter of chance; sometimes the yield is too good and sometimes; it is too low. In both the cases; things become difficult for farmers. If it is too low; they do not get even what they have invested and if it is good; nobody is ready to buy or carry the product to the market; the price dips drastically.
Government policies : Almost every 5th year; a new government is formed which removes the policies and theories given by the previous government. Frequent interference in policies, lead the farmers to darkness. It is not feasible for them to stay vigilant all the time about the government policies. This too affects them adversely. .
Debt trap : Since the farmers are illiterate; they prefer to take loan from money lenders; in banks they demand many things which they are incapable of delivering. The money lenders take undue advantage of this situation; they charge high rate of interest and cheat these people.
Lack of facilities like irrigation and electricity : In India, agriculture is mainly dependent on irrigation by rain water; still there are certain parts where people have to do irrigation by boring well. They extract underground water irrigate their land. Fortunately electricity has reached every part of the country in 2018. Still there are some parts of the country where there is inadequate power supply. This poses problems to irrigation of agricultural land.
Though India is largely dependent on rain water irrigation; irrigation by borewell water more frequent. It is the government of India which can enable the farmers come out of their miseries. Certain things like saving water and utilizing its every drop is a must.
Class 10 English Main Course Book
Unit 1 Health and Medicine
Unit 2 Education
Unit 3 Science
Unit 4 Environment
Unit 5 Travel and Tourism
Unit 6 National Integration
Class 10 English Workbook
- Unit 1 Determiners
- Unit 2 Tenses
- Integrated Grammar Practice 1
- Integrated Grammar Practice 2
- Unit 5 Relatives
- Unit 6 Connectors
- Integrated Grammar Practice 3
- Unit 7 Conditionals
- Integrated Grammar Practice 4
- Unit 9 Avoiding Repetition
- Unit 10 Nominalisation
- Integrated Grammar Practice 5
- Unit 11 Modals-Expressing Attitudes
- Integrated Grammar Practice 6
- Unit 12 Active and Passive
- Integrated Grammar Practice 7
- Integrated Grammar Practice 8
- Unit 14 Prepositions
- Integrated Grammar Practice 9