Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 5 The Hundred Dresses-I
The Hundred Dresses (1944) is a children’s book written by Eleanor Estes. The book is illustrated by Louis Slobodkin. It is a story of a young girl, Wanda Petronski, from Poland. Wanda’s family migrated to America and she joined school in an American town, in Connecticut. The children at the school found her different. She was bullied and mocked.
However, Wanda proved her unusual talent in a drawing competition and won it with much praise. The children who humiliated her were filled with remorse and Wanda, as dignified as always, earned their respect. (Excerpts from this book are given in Class X textbook – First Flight, published by NCERT in 2007).
There are many people who have prejudices against others on the basis of social, economic, racial, and ethnic differences. As a result, they do not recognise their talents
and qualities. Perhaps, they do not know that, what matters is what we do and not who we are.
After reading the excerpt, write a diary entry as Wanda, describing your feelings clearly.
Owing entirely to my father’s transfer to Connecticut, America, I shifted from Poland and joined a school over there. Since my name was peculiar to my friends and my father’s financial condition was not sound; I was compelled to wear one and same dress everyday. My friends used to ridicule me always; particularly Peggy. She always asked me how many dresses I had in my closet. Though her close friend Maddie did not like it; she couldnot resist because she was herself wearing the old dresses of Peggy. Being fed up with her embarrassing question, I retorted one day that I had one hundred dresses. She laughed loudly and asked why I did not wear them. Anyway, in a competition held at school, I made a beautiful frock which was later selected as the best one.
After that my father again decided to shift me from there due to the insult that I was suffering. I had had hundreds of paintings of frock with me. I gave one to Peggy and one another to Maddie. They were surprised and came to my house but I had left the house by that time for the new place. My father wrote a letter to the teacher in a mild language and told the reason of my removal from the school. Though they were not good to me, I miss not only Peggy and Maddie but also my teachers and other friends. Life is like that pains and pleasures come and go; none is permanent.
The excerpt is taken from the biographical account of Harriet Tubman titled, ‘Harriet Tubman, The Moses of Her People’. This is a story of a woman who suffered because of racial discrimination, but she did fight against slavery, helped her family and members of her community to free themselves from the clutches of the perpetrators of their suffering. She was grateful to her friend, Frederick Douglass, who had hidden her, and some runaway slaves more than once in his home in Rochester.
Read the passage (a letter to Harriet by Frederick Douglass) given below and answer the questions that follow.
“The difference between us is very marked. Most that I have done and suffered in the service of our cause has been in public, and I have received much encouragement at every step of the way. You, on the other hand, have laboured in a private way. I have wrought in the day-you in the night. I have had the applause of the crowd and the satisfaction that comes of being approved by the multitude, while the most you have done witnessed by few trembling, scared, and footsore bondmen and women, whom you have led out of the house of bondage, and whose heartfelt God bless you has been your only reward. The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witnesses of your devotion to freedom and your heroism.”
When years later, in her old age, a reporter for the New York Herald Tribune came to interview her one afternoon at her home in Auburn, he wrote that, as he was leaving, Harriet looked towards an orchard nearby and said,
“Do you like apples ?”
On being assured that the young man liked them, she asked, “Did you ever plant any apples ?” The writer confessed that he had not.
“No” said the old woman, “but somebody else planted them”. I liked apples when I was young. And I said, “Someday I’ll plant apples myself for other young folks to eat. And I guess I did.”
Her apples were the apples of freedom. Harriet Tubman lived to see the harvest. Her home in Auburn, New York, is preserved as a memorial to her planting.
(Source: Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People, by Langston Hughes)
What had Harriet done for herself and her community ?
Harriet fought against slavery, helped her family and members of her community to free themselves from the clutches of the perpetrators of their suffering.
What was the title of the first book written on Harriet Tubman and who wrote it?
‘Harriet Tubman : The Moses of Her People’ was the title of the book; it was written by Frederick Douglass.
How had Harriet’s life been hard, but dedicated to a cause ?
Harriet Tubman had laboured hard in a private way to free her country from slavery. The midnight sky and the silent stars had been the witnesses of her devotion to freedom and her heroism.
What comparison had Frederick drawn between his and Harriet’s life?
For the hard work that Frederick Douglass did, he had had the applause of the crowd and the satisfaction that comes of being approved by the multitude. Harriet, on the other hand, remained an unknown entity inspite of his hard work. The midnight sky and the silent stars had been the only witnesses of his devotion to the cause.
Tick the correct answers.
Harriet had been grateful to Frederick because:
(a) Frederick was her neighbour. ( )
(b) Harriet took financial help from Frederick. ()
(c) Harriet revolted as a slave and ran away from her master’s house and Frederick gave her shelter.
(d) Frederick hid other slaves in his house whom
Harriet had inspired to run away. ( )
Tick the correct answer.
‘footsore bondmen and women’ means:
(а) Bondaged men and women had to work day and night. ( )
(b) Bondmen and women suffered from foot diseases. ( )
(c) Bondmen and women were bonded labourers.
(d) Bondaged men and women had wounded and tired feet because they ran for days together to safe places from the house of their masters. ( )
You have read about Wanda and Harriet Tubman, the two individuals who have fought courageously to realise their dreams and ambitions. Similarly, Stephen Hawking, the great physicist, owed one part of his fame to his triumph over his acute medical conditions due to a degenerative disease. When he was diagnosed, aged only 21, he was given only a few years to live. But Hawking defied the normally fatal illness for more than 50 years, pursuing a brilliant career in science that stunned doctors and thrilled his fans. By the time he died at 76, Hawking was among the most recognisable faces in science, perhaps at par with Albert Einstein. Read the passage given below and find out how Hawking was an extraordinary man who cherished life.
Read the passage and answer the questions.
Stephen Hawking, the TV star Famed physicist, cosmologist and writer Stephen Hawking died on a Wednesday morning. He was born on 8 January 1942, exactly 300 years after Galileo died, and he died on 14 March, 2018, which happened to be his old rival Albert Einstein’s birthday. It is likely Professor Hawking is having a laugh at our expense, based on our preposterous love for coincidences.
Comedy lies in the timing. Professor Hawking knew this, and over the years, became incredibly proficient at the art of the comedic pause. It is a tough art to master.
One of my all-time favourites, Stephen Hawking moments came when the Professor sang comedy legends Monty Python’s Galaxy Song for a charity a few years ago, correcting the technicalities in the song’s words and numbers as he went along. It is an unbelievable treat, and these lyrics sound suitably profound when coming from the smartest human in the universe. “Pray that there’s intelligent life somewhere up in space, cause there’s bugger all down here on Earth.”
“Life would be tragic if it wasn’t funny,” Professor Hawking had once said, and clearly enjoyed not only observing the humour in the world, but also pointing it out. His appearances on popular and irreverent mainstream television made us, the viewers, feel included. For a brief moment, we shared a laugh and got to be in the same orbit as him. We felt that this massively brilliant man watches the same television we do, and that’s a genuinely comforting thought. Professor Hawking was an extraordinary man who loved ordinary things.
(Source: Raja Sen, livemint, 14 March, 2018)
Who was born exactly three hundred years after the death of Galileo?
Stephen Hawking died on 14th March which happens to be his old rival’s birthday. Who was this rival of his?
Tick the correct statement.
(a) Stephen Hawking was the rival of Galileo. ()
(b) Galileo was a good friend of Stephen Hawking. ( )
(c) Albert Einstein was the rival of Galileo and Stephen Hawking. ( )
(d) Albert Einstein was the rival of Galileo. ( )
Tick the correct meaning of the word ‘preposterous’.
(a) credible ( )
(b) reasonable ( )
(c) ridiculous ( )
(d) realistic ( )
Why was Professor Hawking said to be proficient in ‘comedic pause’?
Professor Hawking is said to be proficient in ‘comedic pause’ because he had sung comedy legends Monty Python’s Galaxy Song for a charity correcting the technicalities in the song’s words and numbers.
Which song did he sing?
Monty Python’s Galaxy Song.
Why was Stephen Hawking’s singing of the song described as an ‘unbelievable treat’?
Stephen Hawking’s singing of the song was described as an ‘unbelievable treat’ because it was r coming from the smartest man in the universe. Though he was physically challenged; love for music remained with him always.
What had the author shared with the genius Stephen Hawking?
The author had shared a laugh with the genius Stephen Hawking. He felt that the massively brilliant man watched the same television that other ordinary people do.
Why did Stephen Hawking say that “Life would be tragic if it wasn’t funny” ? Did he believe in it?
Stephen Hawking firmly believed in it. So he said this. He not only said but also enjoyed that humour in the world and pointed it out.
Tick the correct answer.
Why was Stephen Hawking described as “extraordinary man who loved ordinary things” ?
(a) He was a professional singer. ( )
(b) He was a physicist. ( )
(c) He was unassuming and loved humour? ( )
Match the words in list A with their meanings in list B.
|Physicist||Someone proficient and skilled in doing something|
|Cosmologist||One who is sincere, honest and truthful|
|Proficient||A scientist who studies the origin and nature of the universe|
|Genuine||One who specialises in the branch of science which deals with the nature and properties of matter and energy such as heat, light, etc.|
|Physicist||One who specialises in the branch of science which deals with the nature and properties of matter and energy such as heat, light, etc.|
|Cosmologist||A scientist who studies the origin and nature of the universe|
|Proficient||Someone proficient and skilled in doing something|
|Genuine||One who is sincere, honest and truthful|
Find one word substitutions for the following expressions.
(а) One who brings about or carries out a harmful, illegal and immoral act. Hint: P __________.
(b) The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people. Hint: D __________.
(c) A large number of people or things. Hint: M __________.
(d) The state of being a slave. Hint: B __________.
(e) To admit that one has committed or done something wrong. Hint: C __________.
(f) Tell someone something positively, to dispel any doubt. Hint: A __________.
Following are some expressions that reflect appreciation.
(a) Burst into applause
(b) Stamp on the floor
Make a list of other expressions that may be used to demonstrate appreciation.
(1) to be all praise for (someone)
(2) exclamation with Hurrah! or Bravo!
Look at the words in italics in the sentences given below. Write the forms of the words such as verb, adjective, noun, adverb, etc. in the space provided.
(a) Comforting is an adjective, change it into a verb. __________
(b) Massively is an adverb, change it into an adjective. __________
(c) Believable is an adjective, change it into a verb. __________
(d) Suitably is an adverb, change it into a adjective. __________
(e) Irreverent is an adjective, change it into an adverb. __________
(f) Likely is an adverb, change it into an adjective. __________
Some words in the following paragraphs are missing. Choose and insert the words given in the bracket.
(from, about, still, how, are, that,
such, of, can, into, a, will)
See Paragraph on Textbook Page 64-65.
|Line No.||Before Word||Word||After Word|
Ask one of your classmates to read aloud the following passage taken from the book The Moffats by Eleanor Estes. The passage can be prerecorded for listening. After listening, write and share your thoughts on what was Jane thinking about.
The way Mama could peel apples! A few turns of the knife and there the apple was, all skinned! Jane could not take her eyes off from her mother’s hands. They had a way of doing things, peeling apples, sprinkling salt, counting pennies that fascinated her. Jane sighed. Her mother’s peelings fell off in lovely long curls, while, for the life of her, Jane couldn’t do any better than these thick little chunks which she popped into her mouth. Moreover it took her as long to peel one apple as for Mama to do five or six. Would she ever get so quick and could she do as well?
“There,” said Mama, “that’s finished.” She set the blue and white kettle of apples on the stove. She sprinkled sugar and cinnamon on the apples with the same deft fingers. Jane sat with her elbows on the kitchen table and her chin cupped in her hands, watching her mother and considering vaguely what to do next. Upstairs she could hear Sylvie saying her lines. She was going to be Cinderella in the play at the Town Hall. Joey had gone bicycling up Shingle Hill with Chet Pudge, and Rufus was probably playing marbles down there at the end of New Dollar Street, waiting for him to come home. There wasn’t anyone to play with, so Jane picked up her doll, Hildegarde, and stuck her in her knitting bag, and went out the back door.
All the fruit trees in the yard looked inviting to Jane. She had half a mind to climb the old apple tree, sit in one of its forks and do some knitting. But first she would go and see if Rufus or Joey were in sight. She skipped round the house, out the gate, and climbed onto the fat old hitching post in front. She looked up the New Dollar Street and down the New Dollar Street for a sign of Joey or Rufus. But neither was in sight. The New Dollar Street was shaped like a bow. That is, it was not a straight street put out by a measuring rod. It had a gentle curve in it like one half of a parenthesis, the first half. Exactly halfway down the New Dollar Street was the yellow house where the Moffats, of whom Jane was the next to the youngest, lived
(Source: The Moffats by Eleanor Estes.)
Jane seems to be a curious-to-learn sort of girl. She watches her mother carefully who was peeling apples in a skilled way. She did it with so much precision that the peels after being separated appear to be lovely long curls. Also she was mesmerized to see that her mama took very less time to peel off apples. She wondered if she ever will be good enough – as quick and precise as her mother was.
Then Jane thinks about her three friends – Sylvie, Joey and Rufus – who all are out of sight. She can just imagine that they might be doing this or that.
Jane also thought to climb the old apple tree, sit in one of its forks and do some knitting there. Lastly she thinks about the New Dollar Street which was shaped like a bow. It had a gentle curve like one half of a parenthesis. Exactly half way down the New Dollar Street was the Yellow House where Moffats, of whom Jane was the next to the youngest, lived.
Work in groups and discuss how one must stay unaffected by peer group influences and remain strong in one’s beliefs without being forced to change.
Man is the best creation of God; every individual has been made different from that of others in order to maintain variety in the world. But at the same time we find that some have many good qualities; some have less. No doubt in order to progress in life; elimination of vices is a must but to please somebody or win somebody’s favour it is never advisable that one suppresses his identity under the influence of somebody else. Just because someone does not like a film does not mean that all others will also dislike that film. To think that one should not speak against their wish is a crime against oneself; we must refrain from it. I, therefore, feel that one must stay unaffected by peer group influences and remain strong in one’s beliefs.
Read the following quote from The Hundred Dresses:
Peggy, “She must have really liked us, anyway.”
There is a new found realisation in Peggy, who seems to truly understand the real Wanda. Quote instances from your life where you have changed your opinion about someone. Share the incident with your class.
When I was 12 years old and my brother, 10 years old; my grandmother frequently went on pilgrimages. Since I was elder, I used to be preferred to go with her. Once it so happened, she refused to take me with her and my younger brother was chosen for the same. Upset with her decision; I left to talk with her. Many years passed. One day she was telling the horrible experience of taking me with her on her previous journey. I insisted too much to get an iron wheel and a stick to move it. On the way it wasn’t possible. She went to a stranger’s house; borrowed it for me. I played with it and then when I slept; she could resume her journey. My eyes were filled with tears to hear the story. I went directly to her and asked for forgiveness which she readily showered on me and gave a tight hug.
Recite the song – ‘The Galaxy Song’ in a group.
The Galaxy Song
Whenever life gets you down, Mrs. Brown,
And things seem hard or tough,
And people are stupid, obnoxious or daft,
And you feel that you’ve had quite eno-o-o-o-o-ough,
Just remember that you’re standing on a planet
And revolving at 900 miles an hour.
It’s orbiting at 19 miles a second, so it’s reckoned,
The sun that is the source of all our power.
Now the sun, and you and me, and all the stars
that we can see,
Are moving at a million miles a day,
In the outer spiral arm, at 40,000 miles an hour,
Of a galaxy we call the Milky Way.
Our galaxy itself contains a hundred billion stars;
It’s a hundred thousand light-years side to side;
It bulges in the middle sixteen thousand light-years
But out by us it’s just three thousand light-years
We’re thirty thousand light-years from Galactic
We go ’round every two hundred million years;
And our galaxy itself is one of millions of billions
In this amazing and expanding universe.
Our universe itself keeps on expanding and
In all of the directions it can whiz;
As fa^t as it can go, at the speed of light, you know,
Twelve million miles a minute and that’s the fastest
speed there is.
So remember, when you’re feeling very small and
How amazingly unlikely is your birth;
And pray that there’s intelligent life somewhere out
‘Cause there’s bugger all down here on Earth! (Source: ‘The Galaxy Song’, Monty Python, song writers: John Du Prez / Eric Idle)
Note : Students, Do it yourself.
What did Harriet mean when she said to the reporter that, “Someday I’ll plant apples myself for other young folks to eat. And I guess I did.” Do you know someone who is like Harriet ? Write about the person who has worked selflessly for the benefit of others, quoting interesting anecdotes from the person’s life.
Mrs. Harriet meant to say that freedom from slavery was like the apples which was liked by everyone and that she had already sown the seed to achieve that. It is the grace of the almighty she lived to reap the harvest.
There is a long list of people who have worked selflessly for the benefit of others – Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi etc. Of them, one name is Dasrath Manjhi. In her pregnancy, his wife used to fetch water from a distant place. Once while doing that she slipped from the mountain and for lack timely medical aid, she breathed her last. Dasrath Manjhi, though dejected, determined to shorten the way to the nearest hospital. He continually went on breaking the whole mountain all alone. It took him 22 yrs but success smiled on him and the way to the nearest hospital became 5 miles only and a road was also constructed on that. In between his first attempt and the success; many things to divert her attention happened but he stayed determined – sometimes there was drought and all villagers left the place; he was alone to support himself. Selflessness has never before been so evident.
Bully, as you know, is someone who dominates, does not let others speak, insults, and sometimes causes physical harm as well. Write a letter to one such bully in your school or neighbourhood and suggest ways to reflect, analyse and mend their behaviour.
Man, being a social animal, is supposed to reflect decency, decoram and discipline through his words, deeds and action. To cause harm either to other human fellow or an animal is not expected from him. I have most oftenly seen that you relish in insulting your juniors and compelling them to do indecent things. You know, life is full of hurdles. The people you oppress and torture are infact struggling to survive. They are trying to earn bread for themselves and their families. The previous day you damaged a three wheeler and beat the driver because he did not get ready to take you to your destination. You beat him with iron rod just for the sake of dominating over. He must have received multiple fractures. Do you think this is what you should have done. My dear; his parents were in hospital and he was going to attend to them. Now, as he himself is in hospital, there is no one to look after the trio. I know, no law is going to prove you guilty and punish you but for the sake of humanity, mend your ways and be like a human being. In order to train your mind, I suggest that you do yoga for a while. This will, 1 am sure, bring about the desired change in you.
Anticipating an early change in you.
An Indian was conferred with the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 for his extraordinary contribution and work for child rights. Can you recall his name ? There was another person from one of our neighbouring countries who shared the award with him. Do you know the name of this person?
“Every single minute matters, every single child matters, every single childhood matters”.
- Work in pairs.
- Prepare a poster or a visual presentation on the Nobel Laureate’s work and views in the context of the above quote.
- Conclude your work with the pointwise summary of U.N. Convention on child rights.
Kailash Satyarthi was the Indian on whom the Nobel Peace Prize 2014 was conferred for his extraordinary contribution and work for child rights. Another person who shared the award with him was Malala Yousafzai from Pakistan.
The Bharat Yatra was launched by KSCF to spread awareness about child trafficking and sexual abuse. Launched in Kanyakumari on September 11, 2017, this campaign marched through seven routes covering 22 Indian states and union territories and over 12000 km.
Work and Views:
Kailash Satyarthi was born in Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh. His father ws a constable and mother, an uneducated housewife.
In 1980, he gave up his career as an electrical engineer and founded the Bachpan Bachao Andolan. In 1998, he led the global march against child labour traversing across 103 countries.
He argues that child labour perpetuates many social evils like poverty, unemployment, illiteracy,. population growth etc.
Summary of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child:
- A child mean severy human being under the age of eighteen years, unless, under the applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
- Every child shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality, and the right to know and be cared for by his parents.
- Every child has the right to preservation of his or her identity.
- Every child has the right to express his/her own views freely in all matters affecting them.
- Children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
- Every child has the right to protection from all forms of abuse, physically or mentally.
- Every child temporatily or permanently deprived of his/her own family environment has the right to special protection and assistance provided by the state.
- Every child has the right to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
- Every child has the right to education.
- Every child has the right to enjoy his/her own culture, to profess and practice his/her own religion and to use his/her own language.
‘The Amul’ cooperative in Anand (Gujarat) ‘ is an initiative to decentralise the collection of milk for the benefit of low income milk producers. Prepare a project on Amul. Find information on the following. You can add more points.
- Collect facts about the functioning of Amul.
- How has it transformed the lives of small farmers, milk producers, and women?
- How Information and Communication Technology and banks are giving support?
- Benefits of having cooperatives
- Do you know about the ‘Amul Girl’?
The Amul Cooperative:
→ Functioning : Amul established a direct linkage between milk producers and consumers by eliminating middlemen. Production and marketing functions have been integrated along the chain, reducing transaction cost of farmers.
→ In the Amul mode, farmers own the company that controls the post production stages of procurement, processing and marketing of milk and milk products. The membership in the cooperative is open to all farmers who own a cow and are able to provide an annual supply of 700 litres of milk. Thus the standard of living of small farmers, milk producers and women has been elevated.
→ The use of information communication technologies in rural areas of Gujrat by GCMMFL has made the operation of the dairy industry different while it has always been argued that investments related to ICT made in rural India are not effective. This system makes it easy for farmers to get the cash payment.
→ There are mainly six benefits of cooperatives :
- providing affordable finance.
- building local expertise and profits.
- international cooperation.
- creating decent jobs.
- empowering women.
- tackling poverty and creating food security.
→ Amul girl refers to the advertising mascot used by Amul, and Indian dairy brand. The Amul girl is a hand drawn cartoon of a young Indian girl dressed in polka dotted frock with blue hair and a half pony tied up.
Class 10 English Literature Reader
- Chapter 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona
- Chapter 2 Mrs. Packletide’s Tiger
- Chapter 3 The Letter
- Chapter 4 A Shady Plot
- Chapter 5 Patol Babu, Film Star
- Chapter 6 Virtually True
- Chapter 7 The Frog and the Nightingale
- Chapter 8 Mirror
- Chapter 9 Not Marble, nor the Gilded Monuments
- Chapter 10 Ozymandias
- Chapter 11 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
- Chapter 12 Snake
- Chapter 13 The Dear Departed
- Chapter 14 Julius Caesar
Class 10 English First Flight (Prose)
- Chapter 1 A Letter to God
- Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom
- Chapter 3 Two Stories about Flying
- Chapter 4 From the Diary of Anne Frank
- Chapter 5 The Hundred Dresses – I
- Chapter 6 The Hundred Dresses – II
- Chapter 7 Glimpses of India
- Chapter 9 Madam Rides the Bus
- Chapter 10 The Sermon at Benares
- Chapter 11 The Proposal
Class 10 English First Flight (Poem)
- Chapter 1 Dust of Snow
- Chapter 3 A Tiger in the Zoo
- Chapter 4 How to Tell Wild Animals
- Chapter 5 The Ball Poem
- Chapter 6 Amanda
- Chapter 7 Animals
- Chapter 8 The Trees
- Chapter 9 Fog
- Chapter 10 The Tale of Custard the Dragon
- Chapter 11 For Anne Gregory
Class 10 English Footprints without Feet