Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions Unit 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Let’s Begin:

Question 1.
You have read the story about Nelson Mandela in your textbook, First Flight, and the struggle of the people of South Africa. Mandela draws our attention to the meaning and importance of freedom and leading a life with freedom.
He states that freedom comes with responsibilities. Discuss with your peers, how freedom and responsibilities go hand in hand.
There is no denying the fact that freedom and responsibilities go hand in hand. One cannot exist without the other. Freedom, in real sense, is the state of existence when an individual is free to exercise his choices, to make his own decisions without seeking the approval or denial of others in any matter whatsoever. It is when a person can work in harmony with its environment without any constraints and boundations. Freedom is said to be achieved and felt when you are imbued with the power to disallow others to impose their opinions and choices upon you. But like it is said nothing comes for free and everything comes at a price.

Freedom is no exception. It is an established fact that every individual desires freedom for a peaceful existence but only very few are willing to make efforts towards its achievement. If a person wants to gain freedom he must be willing to assume responsibilities for his actions and decisions. All the sufferings, pains, disappointments which bind a person to a state of unhappiness can only be dispelled if a person is determined to take an action with utmost responsibility and be equally willing to accept the outcomes, whether good or bad. Then only he can continually improve himself and meet success in the long run. He must take responsibility to fight for everything and anything that he wants or doesnot want. Only then he can enjoy a life full of peace and contentment which accords freedom in its true sense. He can thus free himself from the disgusting feeling of imprisonment and being enslaved.

Reading Comprehension:

Text – I
Given below is a speech by Sardar Patel, one of the prominent figures of India’s freedom struggle. This is one of the convocation speeches delivered by him. Read the speech and answer the questions that follow.
Sardar Patel’s Call to Youth to build
Character and be Disciplined
I must thank you for the affectionate and warm welcome which you have extended to me and for the love and regard which you have shown to me by conferring this honour to me. Gifts are of many kinds those achieved by one’s own endeavour are good and deserved, but no gift should be conferred on one whose worthiness has not been tested. By selecting me without assuring yourself of my fitness for the gift, you have laid me under a heavy debt and, by your injunctions that I should continue to prove worthy of it throughout my life, you have imposed on me a very difficult obligation. At present, I cannot say anything because I am bound by your love and affection; and, therefore, with your blessing and God’s grace, I pray that I may prove worthy of it. Should I fail, the blame for my failure will be shared by you as well.

On this occasion, I wish to place before you a few thoughts which occur to my mind as incidental to our hard-won freedom. We have now won our freedom. But just as I am doubtful, if I deserved the honour that you have done me, you have also to think whether you have done everything to deserve freedom that you have attained after such a bitter and sustained struggle.

There are people who think that having won freedom, there is nothing more to do about it. Freedom has come to us through sacrifices. Those who made sacrifices tasted the fruit of their efforts and self-denials, but it is for those who are now enjoying freedom to taste its fruit. After the last World War, there is an all-round deterioration in human standards. People have become self-centered. They have forgotten or ignored the wider interests of the country. The essential and noteworthy features of our struggle were: sacrifice, truth, and non-violence.

The weapons of the World War were: violence, brute force, political and military moves, and counter moves. As a result of the churning of the ocean, the world has emitted poison. That poison is spreading all over and there is none to swallow it. The countries which were free have managed to digest it somewhat, but we, who have just attained our freedom, it is hard to do the same. Therefore, those who think that having attained freedom they have attained everything have really attained nothing! The freedom that we have won is yet to be consolidated. The foundations of freedom have to be well and truly laid! This one-year old child has to be nursed and nourished, instructed and strengthened. It is for us to do it and we must do it.

In India today, there is no time for useless controversies and unnecessary debates and disputes. One can indulge in these pastimes when one has time and leisure. At present, we have to occupy ourselves with the all absorbing task of making the foundation of our freedom strong and unassailable. We have to reflect on our place in this broken and destructed worldand what our duty and obligations are! If we fail to make the best use of our freedom to make it worthwhile and turn it to our advantage and advancements, future generations will heap curses on us. They will say that a spiritualist, a great soul gave us this precious boon, but we did not know how to retain it and lost it.

I should like to urge upon those who train citizens of tomorrow and to those citizens of tomorrow that we have yet to stand on our feet. We must concentrate on one thing alone, viz., how to make our country strong and united. We can make it strong when hearts are pure and when we fully appreciate our duty. Now that foreign rulers have gone, are we in a position to sustain the whole burden that has devolved on us ? When we took over from them, the administrative fabric was in tatters. We have to mend and place it. This, in itself, is a heavy responsibility. It is for our universities to train young men to shoulder these responsibilities.

The great university of life is full of experiences, but to make full use of those experiences, all of us students, teachers and professors – have to be cautious and on guard. The most essential requisite is character. If your character is lacking and you leave the precincts of the alma mater without your character fully developed, you will be wasting an opportunity of a lifetime.

You have to realise that India has to attain its rightful place in the comity of nations. The leadership of Asia would be hers if she conducts herself well and if her citizens make their fitting contribution to nation’s resurgence. Whatever trials and troubles we might have passed through, there is no denying the fact that we have a precious inheritance and the teachings we have received from the departed leaders are great assets for us.

India abounds in the resources of nature and manpower. They are awaiting full use. That task must devolve on young men and women. We ourselves were trained in the school of experience. We fought for freedom and we have attained that prize for you. It is now up to you to prove yourself worthy of the same. This you can do only if you work with single- minded devotion to the cause of the country. It is only then that you can deserve this freedom and be proud of it.

The real danger of India lies in our disunity. That poison of communalism was spread in the past. You should draw a curtain over it. Only then could we equip ourselves for the freedom that has come to us.

There are still people in the country whose loyalty to India has not settled down. They should and will leave India. This is the occasion for mutual help and mutual cooperation. We must know what our duty is as true citizens. Your teacher has to impart that duty. Unless we learn to shoulder our responsibility in the true spirit of discipline and citizenship we cannot go ahead. We must strengthen our shoulders and our legs so that we can stand erect and bear the burden that has devolved on us. Then alone would we secure the real objective of freedom.
(Source: The Collected Works of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Volume XIII [1 January 1948 – 31 December 1948], Editor: P.N. Chopra, Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)

Complete the sentences given below by choosing the most appropriate word or phrase.

Question 1.
The occasion of the speech of Sardar Patel here is ____________.
(а) an address to a public gathering
(b) a convocation address at a university
(c) a speech in Indian Parliament
(d) a speech delivered to civil servants
(b) a convocation address at a university

Question 2.
Patel feels that future generations will heap curses on us if ____________.
(а) we fail to protect our freedom
(b) we fail to protect the corrupt people in public life
(c) we wage war against other nations
(d) we understand the need for peace
(а) we fail to protect our freedom

Question 3.
The first and foremost thing Patel stressed to be done is ____________.
(a) to make the country strong and united
(b) to give employment to everyone
(c) to fight a war against those who oppressed us
(d) to make every citizen feel happy
(a) to make the country strong and united

Question 4.
One major characteristic of university education, as Sardar Patel believes, is ____________.
(a) character
(b) duty
(c) knowledge
(d) power
(a) character

Question 5.
What did Patel not mean when he said, “You have to realise that India has to attain its rightful place in the comity of nations” ? Tick the right answer.
(a) Friendly and cordial relationship with other nations
(b) Group of nations which wage war against other
(c) Community of people
(d) Nations from a continent
(b) Group of nations which wage war against other

Question 6.
‘India abounds in the resources of nature and manpower’ means ____________.
(a) India has a vibrant economy
(b) India’s natural resources and population are a great resource
(c) India’s lack of manpower
(d) Indians are great resource for development
(b) India’s natural resources and population are a great resource

Question 7.
What is the greatest danger for India as Patel believes in his speech?
(a) Climate in India is not suitable for hard work.
(b) Disunity and communalism among the citizens are the greatest danger for India.
(c) India’s lack of manpower.
(d) Indians lack in intelligence quotient.
(b) Disunity and communalism among the citizens are the greatest danger for India.

Question 8.
Complete the following statement based on your understanding of Patel’s speech.
The first and foremost duty of the young nation is to make the foundation of nation’s freedom strong and unassailable, to make the country strong and united by assuming responsibilities and performing duties sincerely.


Question 1.
Use the following words and phrases in your own sentences.

  • Precincts : The beautiful memories of the time that I spent with my close friends in the precincts of my college filled me with nostalgia.
  • Comity of nations : With its resourceful manpower and ongoing technological advancements, India enjoys a great reputation amongst the technologically sound comity of nations.
  • Unassailable : At a recent match played between the top notch Tennis players, Rafael Nadal was unassailable with his power packed performance.
  • Mutual cooperation : In all spheres of life we need mutual cooperation from our fellow citizens to ensure harmonous and peaceful co-existence.

Question 2.
Sardar Patel called upon young students to understand the meaning of freedom and ways to sustain it. Here are two key words which he stressed upon-‘Freedom’ and ‘Responsibility’. Working in pairs, find words and phrases which convey the feeling of these words and write below.

Freedom Responsibility
(1) liberty (1) Authority
(2) emancipation (2) self-importance
(3) Rights (3) obligation
(4) discharge of duties (4) Power
(5) deliverance (5) duty
(6) entitlement to (6) answerable
(7) non-confinement (7) Autonomy

You may have written above at least seven to eight words for each key word. Using the words. Write at least five sentences describing ‘Freedom’ and ‘Responsibility’. One has been done for you.
Example : Freedom is not free.
(1) We as aware and responsible individuals of a nation must exercise our rights, at the same time must fulfill our duties towards it.
(2) Our great freedom fighters demonstrated utmost bravery and put in great deal of efforts for the emancipation of the nation from the oppression of the Britishers.
(3) When we assume responsibility for our actions and deeds, we automatically become answerable for the outcomes of our actions.
(4) Clinching the much coveted title of ‘best batsman’ in the world cup was a matter of pride and self-importance for Mark Waugh.
(5) It is the duty of every citizen of the nation to protect its nation against foreign invasion and external threats and be willing to extend help at the time of need.


Use of Articles:

Question 1.
You have come across the use of articles ‘a’, ‘an’, and ‘the’ in the lesson. The tasks in the textbook give you the idea that the use of ‘the’ with proper noun carries a special meaning. Read the following paragraph from the speech you have read above. The articles are missing in the paragraph. With the help of your partner, fill in the blanks.
_________ weapons of world war were: violence, brute force, political and military moves, and counter moves. As _________ result of _________ churning of the ocean, _________ world has emitted poison. That poison is spreading all over and there is none to swallow it. countries which were free have managed to digest it somewhat, but we, who have just attained our freedom, it is hard to do _________ same. Therefore, those who think that having attained freedom they have attained-
everything, have really attained nothing! _________ freedom that we have won is yet to be consolidated.
The; the: a; the: the: The: the; The.

Question 2.
Which article most frequently occurs in the passage? Why is it so? Can you replace it with some other article? Why / Why not? Discuss with your peers and make notes.
The article that occurs most frequently in the passage is ‘The’. No, we cannot replace it with some other article. This is because we ought to use the definite article ‘The’ in case of proper nouns, the things which have previously been mentioned and discussed in the textual matter.

Question 3.
Fill in the blanks with suitable articles.
(a) boy and girl were shopping in a market. boy was from Kerala and girl was from Nagaland.
(b) Can you turn off light?
(c) He has taken taxi to station.
(d) Is there police station nearby?
(e) My sister works in bank.
(f) He has been looking for job for the last seven years.
(g) Would you like to eat apple?
(h) He goes to the theatre once month.
(i) This morning I bought _________ newspaper and magazine. _________ newspaper is on my table and I forgot where I have placed _________ magazine.
(j) We would like to have dinner at _________ good restaurant.


Question 1.
The following passage has an error in each line. Find the error and write the correct word or words against the line.
I don’t mean that some peoples are
born clear headed _________
and is therefore natural writers,
whereas others _________
are naturally fuzzy and will never
wrote well. _________
Thinking clearly was a conscious act
that writers _________
must forced on themselves, as if they
were working
on any other project that requires
logic: makes _________
shopping list or doing an algebra problems. _________
Good writing do not come naturally, _________
though most people seems to think it does. _________
Professional writer are constantly
bearded by _________
people who say they’d like to “trying a little _________
writing sometime” – meaned when they _________
retire from their real profession. _________
Incorrect word:

  • peoples
  • is
  • wrote
  • was
  • forced
  • makes
  • problems
  • do not
  • seems
  • writer
  • trying
  • meaned
  • profession

Correct word:

  • people
  • are
  • write
  • is
  • force
  • making
  • problem
  • does not
  • seem
  • writers
  • try
  • means
  • professions


Question 1.
Your teacher or any one student will read out the text given below to the whole class. Listen carefully. Working in groups of four, note down in short the important points as you listen. Discuss in your group. Recreate and write the text you have listened to. You need not write the exact text, but the meaning should be nearest to the actual text read out to you. Your teacher will read out the text again for all the groups so that you can check whether you have understood the text well.
Text for listening:
A few minutes ago, walking back from lunch, I started to cross the street when I heard the sound of a coin dropping. It wasn’t much but, as I turned my eyes caught the heads of several other people turning too. A woman had dropped what appeared to be a one rupee coin. The tinkling sound of a coin dropping on the pavement grabs attention. Whatever be the value of the coin no one can ignore the sound of it. It got me thinking about sounds again.
It was only a few minutes ago. While walking back from lunch, I happened to cross the street. I heard a faint sound of a coin dropping. As I turned back to take a look at what that was, I noticed the sound gamering several eyeballs at the very moment. It was the sound of, possibly, a one rupee coin accidentally dropped by a woman. It made me wonder, no matter what the value of the coin is, the tinkling sound emanating from its fall on a pavement invariably invites attention. Soon I realised I was in deep contemplation about the various kinds of sounds.


Question 1.
You have read the speeches of Nelson Mandela and Sardar Patel. You know their beliefs and ideas on freedom and responsibilities for a new born nation. Discuss with your partner and put down your ideas on what freedom means to you. Prepare an outline.
Freedom to me is a feeling of inner peace and contentment in life. It means liberation from all kinds of anxieties, worries and sufferings. According to me freedom lies in self-empowerment and autonomy. It is when you are free to make independent decisions and are not forced to work or act on the commands of others. In a nutshell freedom must bring forth the power for self-expression and self-realization. It must contribute towards the attainment of one’s true purpose in life.

Question 2.
Prepare a speech for the morning assembly reflecting on the following questions.
(а) How do you feel today about the country’s freedom?
(b) Are we free and independent?
(c) Are we serious about our responsibilities as citizens?
Respected teachers and my dear friends. Honorable principal madam:
Today, I have got the privilege to share my views with all of you on the topic of freedom and its significance in our lives. As we all are aware that the indepth and thorough struggles of the great freedom fighters of our nation made it possible for all of us to live and enjoy our lives freely as part of an independent nation. Our great leaders fought against all odds and discrimination meted out to our countrymen by the britishers. But if we think deeply can we truly say that we live in a free and independent nation.

Are we really free and independent in our lives? The answer is, many of us may not be living our lives in complete freedom. We are still dissatisfied with our lives and want to change its various aspects according to our own wishes and likes. The reason for such a state of affairs is that although each one of us want to enjoy freedom but not all are willing to assume our responsibilities towards each other and towards nation at large. The nation and its citizens might have gained freedom from the British oppression but as far as their personal lives are concerned they are still not completely free. They are still the victims of all kinds of social ills that has infested the country and its countrymen. It is only after we carry out our responsibilities in our lives in an earnest way, we can enjoy full freedom in true sense.
Thank you!


Question 1.
Make pairs. One of you takes the role of Nelson Mandela and the other becomes the interviewer.
(a) The interviewer prepares a questionnaire on Nelson Mandela-Mandela as a person and his contributions to the removal of Apartheid.
(b) The interviewee responds to them. The interviewer’s task is to note down the answers also,
(c) The interviewer, through the questions, tries to get an overview of Mandela’s life.
For interviewer Questions to be framed For interviewee Answers by the Interviewee
1. What was the first source of inspiration for you that propelled you to contribute towards the freedom struggle for Independence?
Having heard the elder’s stories of my ancestors’ valour during wars of resistance, I dreamt of making my own contribution to the freedom struggle of my people.

2. How many years of imprisonment you had to face before you could negotiate the end of apartheid?
It was only after 27 years of imprisonment when I was finally released in 1990 and could negotiate the end of apartheid.

3. Do you have any regrets in life about not being able to do something that you wanted to?
I feel that lam simply the sum of all those African patriots who has gone before me. I wish I was able to thank them for their sacrifices.

4. What transformed you as a person and pushed you to fight against the ill of apartheid prevalant in your nation?
It was my desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated my life and transformed a frightened young man to a bold one.

5. What consequences you had to face for joining the national campaign with Maulvi Cachalia?
I was charged under the suppression of Communism Act and was sentenced to nine months of hard labour, suspended for 2 years.

Question 2.
Make groups of four and find out the background information on Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King. All three of them fought against all odds and used non-violence to achieve their aim. Choose any two of the above stated leaders and do a comparative study of their principles and lives.
Leader 1:
Mahatma Gandhi:

  • He made tremendous contribution to the freedom struggle of India.
  • He posed to be an integrationalist but in reality he was a Hindu theocrat and civilizationist.
  • His utmost endeavour was to infuse hinduism and restore Hindu authority in India.
  • He struggled against the racial discrimination in South Africa and in India naming the struggle Satyagraha.
  • He believed that in Satyagraha physical action or reaction is not allowed even in favourable situation. His political ideals were based on philosophy of non-violence because he believed that violence breeds more violence.
  • He explained that Truth (Satya) is love and firmness (graha) is a force. Truth and love produce force. Persuasion was preferred to coercion.
  • He said truth is the most favourite word of God. He opined that non-violence is the best way to express goodwill. It is a type of coercion that offers opportunities for harmonius relations.
  • He led majority against a small and outlandish ruling minority. He was a powerful, practical and competent leader as he was the leader of small, untrained, unorganised and severely depressed minority against a ruling majority.
  • Major segments of all minorities living in British India didn’t approve. Gandhi’s role as projected by Hindu scholarship. His ideals and way of protest bred a positive image on all factions.
  • Gandhi always consoled muslim verbally but appreciated practically every strife paving way for Hindu Hegemony. Montgomery Bus boycott elevated king’s status to national level. He suffocated all separatist movements.

Leader 2:
Martin Luther King:

  • He is acknowledged as a towering personality who successfully launched non-violent struggle against racial discrimination in United States. He was a realist, constitutionalist and integrationist.
  • He sought to get the American constitution implemented in real and practical sense.
  • After obtaining a doctoral degree he adopted priesthood but soon resigned and joined the struggle against the ongoing injustice with African Americans.
  • His political ideals were based on philosophy of non-violence because he believed that violence breeds more violence.
  • Persuasion was preferred to coercion.
  • He opined that non-violence is the best way to express goodwill. It is a type of coercion that offers opportunities for harmonius relations.
  • He was a powerful, practical and competent leader as he was the leader of small, untrained, unorganised and severely depressed minority against a ruling majority.
  • His ideals and way of protest bred a positive image on all factions.
  • Montgomery Bus boycott elevated king’s status to national level. He suffocated all separatist movements.


Question 1.
You have learnt about the freedom struggles of many nations after the Second World War and how many leaders spearheaded freedom movements in their countries. Based on the learning from history and political science, write about any two leaders from different nations. The following are prompts that can help you :
(a) Their thoughts
(b) Their uniqueness
(c) Honesty and integrity
(d) Confidence and leadership qualities
(e) Inspirational speeches
(f) Contributions to free their countries
(Hints: You may develop their profiles in chronological order. You may visit the library. Consult social science teachers in your school and elders in your neighbourhood.)
(1) Subhash Chandra Bose : As far as the history of India’s Independence struggle against the British is concerned Subhash Chandra Bose remains a key figure. Bose, also known affectionately as Netaji, became part of the Indian struggle for Independence when he joined the Civil Disobedience Movement that was being led by Mahatma Gandhi. Later on, he also became an active member of INC. In 1938 and 1939, he was also chosen as the party president.

He was held under house arrest by the British because he had been opposing their rule. However, he left the country secretly in 1941 and travelled westwards through Afghanistan to Europe where he sought assistance in his struggle against the British from Russians and Germans. He visited Japan in 1943 where the royal administration said yes to his appeal for help. It was here that he formed the Indian National Army with Indian war prisoners who had served with the British Indian army.

Apart from the fact that he tried to be different, much like the revolutionary extremist freedom fighters of the day, and kept up the spirit of fiery leadership in that critical period of India’s history, there are also several other ways in which he made his own contribution to his motherland’s freedom struggle. The assault by the INA, no matter how short-lived it was, was an important factor that eventually contributed to the British decision to stop their operations and shift back to their own land. This in the end did pave the way for India’s Independence.

Bose advocated complete unconditional Independence for India, whereas All-India Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through dominion status. He was a militant Nationalist. He supported empowerment of women, secularism and other liberal ideas. His most famous quote was “Give me blood and I will give you freedom”.

(2) Kwame NKrumah : He was a Ghanain politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. An influential advocate of Pan-Africanism, he was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity.

After 12 years abroad pursuing higher education, developing his political philosophy and organising with other Pan-Africanists, he returned to Gold Cost to begin his political career as an advocate of national independence.

His administration was both nationalist and socialist. Thus, it funded national industrial and energy projects, developed strong national education systems and promoted a national and Pan-African culture.

He got immersed into the African-American liberation struggle, met Martin Luther King Jr. while in the US. While studying in Great Britain, he crossed paths with many fellow Africans struggling for Independence, the likes of Kenya’s Jomo Kenyatta, Ethiopia’s Haile Selassie. His famous remarks were – “We face neither East nor West: we face forward.” “Revolutions are brought about by men, by men who think as men of action and act as men of thought.” He played a key role in creating the organisation of African Unity.

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