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FIGURE 32.1 In 2001, almos t thr ee thousand people died as a r esul t of the Sep tember 11 at tack s, when membersof the t errorist group al -Qaeda hijack ed four planes as par t of a c oordinat ed at tack on sit es in Ne w York City andWashingt on, DC.
INTR ODUC TIONCHAP TER OUTLINE32.1 The W ar on T error32.2 The Domes tic Mis sion32.3 New Centur y, Old Disput es32.4 Hope and Chang e
On the morning o f Septemb er 11, 2001, hop es tha t the new c entur y would le ave behind theconflicts o f the previous one w ere dashe d when tw o hijack ed airliners crashe d into the twin to wers o f NewYork’s World T rade C enter . When the firs t plane s truck the nor th to wer, man y as sume d tha t the crash w as ahorrific ac cident . But then a sec ond plane hit the south to wer les s than thir ty minutes la ter. People on thestreet w atche d in horror , as some o f those trapp ed in the burning buildings jump ed to their de aths and the
enormous to wers c ollapse d into dus t. In the photo a bove, the Sta tue o f Lib erty app ears to lo ok on helples sly, asthick plumes o f smok e obscure the Lo wer Manha ttan skyline ( Figure 32.1 ). The ev ents set in motion b y theSeptemb er 11 a ttacks w ould raise fundamental ques tions a bout the Unite d Sta tes’ role in the w orld , the e xtentto which priv acy should b e protecte d at the c ost of security , the definition o f exactly who is an Americ an, andthe c ost of lib erty.32The Challenges of the T wenty-First
Century32.1 The W ar on T errorLEARNING OBJEC TIVESBy the end o f this section, y ou wil l be able t o:
•Discus s ho w the Unit ed Stat es responded t o the t errorist attack s of Sep tember 11, 2001•Explain wh y the Unit ed Stat es w ent t o war ag ains t Afghanis tan and Ir aq•Describe the tr eatment o f suspect ed terrorists by U.S. la w enf orcement ag encies and the U .S. militar yFIGURE 32.2 (credit “2004” : modification o f work b y Elaine and P riscil la Chan; cr edit “2013” : modification o f workby Aaron T ang; cr edit “2001” : modification o f work b y “D VIDSHUB”/Flickr)
As a result o f the narro w decision o f the U .S. Supreme C ourt in Bush v . Gore , Republic an Georg e W. Bush w asthe declare d the winner o f the 2000 presidential election with a majority in the Electoral C olleg e of 271 v otes to266, although he rec eived appro xima tely 540,000 f ewer p opular v otes na tionally than his Demo craticopp onent , Bill Clinton ’s vic e president , Al Gore . Bush had c amp aigne d with a promise o f “comp assiona teconser vatism ” at home and noninter vention a broad. These pla tform planks w ere designe d to app eal to those
who f elt tha t the Clinton adminis tration ’s initia tives in the Balkans and Afric a had unnec essarily entangle d theUnite d Sta tes in the c onflicts o f foreign na tions . Bush’s 2001 e duc ation ref orm act , dubb ed No Child LeftBehind , had s trong bip artisan supp ort and reflecte d his domes tic interes ts. But b efore the president c ould signthe bill into la w, the w orld chang ed when f our Americ an airliners w ere hijack ed and use d in the single mos tdeadly act o f terrorism in the Unite d Sta tes. Bush’s domes tic a genda quickly to ok a b ackse at, as the president
swiftly chang ed course from noninter vention in f oreign a ffairs to a “ war on terror .”9/11Shor tly a fter tak eoff on the morning o f Septemb er 11, 2001, te ams o f hijack ers from the Islamis t terroris tgroup al-Qae daseiz ed control o f four Americ an airliners . Tw o of the airplanes w ere flo wn into the twin to wersof the W orld T rade C enter in Lo wer Manha ttan. Morning new s programs tha t were filming the moments a fter
the firs t imp act, then as sume d to b e an ac cident , capture d and aire d liv e footage of the sec ond plane , as itbarrele d into the other to wer in a flash o f fire and smok e. Les s than tw o hours la ter, the he at from the crash andthe e xplosion o f jet fuel c aused the upp er flo ors o f both buildings to c ollapse onto the lo wer flo ors, reducingboth to wers to smoldering r ubble . The p asseng ers and crew on b oth planes , as w ell as 2,606 p eople in the tw obuildings , all die d, including 343 N ew Y ork City firefighters who r ushe d in to sa ve victims shor tly b efore the878 32 • The Chal leng es o f the T wenty -Firs t Centur y
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towers c ollapse d.
The third hijack ed plane w as flo wn into the P enta gon building in nor thern V irginia, jus t outside W ashington ,DC, killing ev eryone on b oard and 125 p eople on the ground . The f ourth plane , also he ading to wardsWashington , crashe d in a field ne ar Shanks ville , Penns ylvania, when p asseng ers, aware o f the other a ttacks ,attempte d to s torm the c ockpit and disarm the hijack ers. Everyone on b oard w as kille d (Figure 32.3 ).
FIGURE 32.3 Three o f the f our airliners hijack ed on Sep tember 11, 2001, r eached their tar gets. Unit ed 93,presumabl y on its w ay to des troy either the Capit ol or the Whit e House , was br ought do wn in a field aft er a s trug glebetw een the pas seng ers and the hijack ers.
Tha t evening , President B ush promise d the na tion tha t those resp onsible f or the a ttacks w ould b e brought tojustice. Three da ys later, Congres s issued a joint resolution a uthorizing the president to use all me ansnecessary agains t the individuals , org aniza tions , or na tions in volved in the a ttacks . On Septemb er 20, in anaddres s to a joint ses sion o f Congres s, Bush declare d war on terrorism , blame d al-Qae da le ader Osama binLaden f or the a ttacks , and demande d tha t the radic al Islamic fundamentalis ts who r uled Afghanis tan, the
Talib an, turn bin Laden o ver or fac e attack b y the Unite d Sta tes. This sp eech enc apsula ted wha t becamekno wn as the Bush Do ctrine , the b elief tha t the Unite d Sta tes has the right to protect itself from terroris t actsby eng aging in pre -emptiv e wars or ous ting hos tile g overnments in fa vor o f friendly , pref erably demo cratic,regimes .
CLICK AND EXPL ORERead the te xt ofPresident B ush’s addres s( ush911) to C ongres s declaring a “ war onterror .”World le aders and millions o f their citiz ens e xpres sed supp ort for the Unite d Sta tes and c ondemne d the de adlyattacks . Russian president Vladimir Putin characteriz ed them as a b old challeng e to humanity itself. German
chanc ellor Gerhard Schro der said the ev ents o f tha t day were “not only a ttacks on the p eople in the Unite dStates, our friends in Americ a, but also a gains t the entire civiliz ed world , agains t our o wn free dom , agains t ourown v alues , values which w e share with the Americ an p eople .” Yasser Ara fat, chairman o f the P ales tinianLiberation Org aniza tion and a v eteran o f sev eral blo ody s truggles a gains t Israel , was dumbf ounde d by thenew s and announc ed to rep orters in G aza, “ We completely c ondemn this v ery dang erous a ttack , and I c onvey
my condolenc es to the Americ an p eople , to the Americ an president and to the Americ an adminis tration .”CLICK AND EXPL OREIn Ma y 2014, a Museum de dicated to the memor y of the victims w as c omplete d. Watch this video32.1 • The W ar on T error 879( tory)and le arn more a bout the victims and ho w the c ountr y seeks to rememb erthem .
GOING T O W AR IN AFGHANIST ANWhen it b ecame cle ar tha t the mas termind b ehind the a ttack w as Osama bin Laden , a w ealth y Sa udi Ara biannational who ran his terror netw ork from Afghanis tan, the full a ttention o f the Unite d Sta tes turne d to wardsCentral Asia and the T alib an. Bin Laden had deep ro ots in Afghanis tan. Lik e man y others from around theIslamic w orld , he had c ome to the c ountr y to ous t the So viet arm y, which in vaded Afghanis tan in 1979.
Ironic ally, both bin Laden and the T alib an rec eived ma terial supp ort from the Unite d Sta tes a t tha t time . By thelate 1980s , the So viets and the Americ ans had b oth left , although bin Laden , by tha t time the le ader o f his o wnterroris t org aniza tion , al-Qae da, remaine d.
The T alib an refuse d to turn bin Laden o ver, and the Unite d Sta tes b egan a b ombing c amp aign in Octob er,allying with the Afghan N orthern A llianc e, a c oalition o f trib al le aders opp osed to the T alib an. U.S. air supp ortwas so on a ugmente d by ground tro ops ( Figure 32.4 ). By Novemb er 2001, the T alib an had b een ous ted frompower in Afghanis tan’s capital o f Kabul, but bin Laden and his f ollowers had alre ady esc aped acros s the Afghanborder to mountain sanctuaries in nor thern P akis tan.
FIGURE 32.4 Marines fight ag ains t Taliban f orces in Helmand P rovinc e, Afghanis tan. Helmand w as a c enter ofTaliban s trength. (cr edit: “D VIDSHUB”/Flickr)IRA QAt the same time tha t the U .S. militar y was taking c ontrol o f Afghanis tan, the B ush adminis tration w as lo okingto a new and larg er w ar with the c ountr y of Iraq . Relations b etween the Unite d Sta tes and Iraq had b een
straine d ev er sinc e the Gulf W ar a dec ade e arlier . Economic sanctions imp osed on Iraq b y the Unite d Nations ,and Americ an a ttempts to f oster internal rev olts a gains t President Saddam Hus sein ’s government , had fur thertainte d the rela tionship . A faction within the B ush adminis tration , sometimes la beled neo conser vatives,believ ed Iraq ’s rec alcitranc e in the fac e of overwhelming U .S. militar y sup eriority represente d a dang eroussymb ol to terroris t groups around the w orld , rec ently emb oldene d by the drama tic suc cess of the al-Qae da
attacks in the Unite d Sta tes. Powerful memb ers o f this faction , including V ice President Dick Chene y andSecretar y of Def ense Donald R ums feld, believ ed the time to s trike Iraq and solv e this f estering problem w asright then , in the w ake of 9/11. Others , like Secretar y of Sta te C olin P owell, a highly resp ecte d veteran o f theVietnam W ar and f ormer chair o f the J oint Chiefs o f Sta ff, w ere more c autious a bout initia ting c omb at.
The more militant side w on, and the argument f or w ar w as gradually laid out f or the Americ an p eople . Theimme diate imp etus to the in vasion , it argue d, was the f ear tha t Hus sein w as s tockpiling w eapons o f mas sdestruction ( WMDs ): nucle ar, chemic al, or biologic al w eapons c apable o f wre aking gre at ha voc. Hus sein had infact use d WMDs a gains t Iranian f orces during his w ar with Iran in the 1980s , and a gains t the K urds in nor thernIraq in 1988—a time when the Unite d Sta tes activ ely supp orted the Iraqi dicta tor. Following the Gulf W ar,880 32 • The Chal leng es o f the T wenty -Firs t Centur y
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insp ectors from the Unite d Nations S pecial C ommis sion and Interna tional A tomic Energ y Ag ency had in factlocated and des troyed stockpiles o f Iraqi w eapons. Those arguing f or a new Iraqi in vasion insis ted, however,that weapons s till e xisted. President B ush himself told the na tion in Octob er 2002 tha t the Unite d Sta tes w as“facing cle ar evidenc e of peril, we cannot w ait f or the final pro of—the smoking gun—tha t could c ome in theform o f a mushro om cloud .” The he ad o f the Unite d Nations Monitoring , Verific ation and Insp ection
Commis sion , Hanx Blix , dismis sed these claims . Blix argue d tha t while Saddam Hus sein w as not b eing entirelyforthright , he did not app ear to b e in p ossession o f WMDs . Despite Blix ’s findings and his o wn e arliermis givings , Powell argue d in 2003 b efore the Unite d Nations General As sembly tha t Hus sein had viola ted UNresolutions . Much o f his evidenc e relie d on secret inf orma tion pro vide d by an inf ormant tha t was la ter pro vento b e false . On March 17, 2003, the Unite d Sta tes cut o ff all rela tions with Iraq . Tw o da ys later, in a c oalition
with Gre at Britain , Australia, and P oland , the Unite d Sta tes b egan “ Operation Iraqi F reedom ” with an in vasionof Iraq .
Other arguments supp orting the in vasion note d the e ase with which the op eration c ould b e ac complishe d. InFebruary 2002, some in the Dep artment o f Def ense w ere sugg esting the w ar w ould b e “a cakewalk.” InNovemb er, ref erencing the shor t and suc cessful Gulf W ar o f 1990–1991, Secretar y of Def ense R ums feld toldthe Americ an p eople it w as a bsurd , as some w ere claiming , tha t the c onflict w ould deg enera te into a long ,drawn-out qua gmire . “Five da ys or fiv e weeks or fiv e months , but it c ertainly isn ’t going to las t an y long er than
that,” he insis ted. “It w on’t be a W orld W ar III. ” And , jus t days before the s tart of comb at op erations in 2003,Vice President Chene y announc ed tha t U.S. forces w ould lik ely “b e greete d as lib erators ,” and the w ar w ould b eover in “ weeks ra ther than months .”Early in the c onflict , these pre dictions seeme d to b e coming tr ue. The march into Ba ghdad w ent fairlysmo othly . Soon Americ ans b ack home w ere w atching on television as U .S. soldiers and the Iraqi p eople w orked
together to topple s tatues o f the dep osed leader Hus sein around the c apital . The re ality , however, was far morecomple x. While Americ an de aths had b een f ew, thousands o f Iraqis had die d, and the see ds o f internal s trifeand resentment a gains t the Unite d Sta tes had b een so wn. The Unite d Sta tes w as not prep ared for a long p erio dof occup ation; it w as also not prep ared for the inevita ble problems o f law and order , or f or the violent sectarianconflicts tha t emerg ed. Thus , even though B ush pro claime d a U .S. victor y in Ma y 2003, on the deck o f the US S
Abraham Linc olnwith the b anner “Mis sion A ccomplishe d” prominently displa yed behind him , the c elebra tionproved prema ture b y more than sev en y ears ( Figure 32.5 ).
FIGURE 32.5 President Bush giv es the vict ory symbol on the air craft carrier US SAbraham Linc olnin Ma y 2003,after American tr oops had c omplet ed the cap ture of Iraq’s capit ol Baghdad. Y et, b y the time the Unit ed Stat es final lywithdr ew its f orces fr om Ir aq in 2011, nearl y fiv e thousand U .S. soldiers had died.32.1 • The W ar on T error 881Lt. Gener al James Conw ay on the Inv asion of BaghdadLt. Gener al James Con way, who c ommanded the Firs t Marine Expeditionar y Force in Ir aq, ans wers a r epor ter’s
ques tions about civilian casual ties during the 2003 in vasion o f Baghdad.
““As a civilian in those earl y da ys, one definit ely had the sense that the high c ommand had e xpect ed somethingto happen which didn ’t. W as that a c orrect per ception? ”—We were told b y our int elligence folks that the enem y is carr ying civilian clothes in their pack s because , as soonas the shooting s tarts, the y’re going put on their civilian clothes and the y’re going g o home . Well, the y put ontheir civilian clothes , but not t o go home . The y put on civilian clothes t o blend with the civilians and shoot back at
us. . . .
“Ther e’s been some criticism o f the beha vior o f the Marines at the Diy ala bridg e [acr oss the Tigris Riv er int oBaghdad] in t erms o f civilian casual ties.”—Well, after the Thir d Bat talion, F ourth Marines cr ossed, the r esistanc e was not al l gone. . . . The y had jus t foughtto tak e a bridg e. The y were being c ount erattack ed b y enem y forces. Some o f the civilian v ehicles that w ound upwith the bul let holes in them c ontained enem y fight ers in unif orm with w eapons , some o f them did not. Ag ain,
we’re terribl y sorr y about the los s of any civilian lif e wher e civilians ar e kil led in a bat tlefield set ting. I wil lguarantee y ou, it w as not the int ent o f those Marines t o kil l civilians . [The civilian casual ties happened becausethe Marines] f elt thr eatened, [and] the y were ha ving a t ough time dis tinguishing fr om an enem y that [is violating ]the la ws of land w arfare by going t o civilian clothes , put ting his o wn people at risk. Al l of those things , I think,[had an] impact [on the beha vior o f the Marines], and in the end it ’s very unf ortunat e that civilians died. ”
Who in y our opinion bears primar y responsibility f or the deaths o f Iraqi civilians?
DOMESTIC SECURIT YThe a ttacks o f Septemb er 11 a wakened man y to the re ality tha t the end o f the C old W ar did not me an an end toforeign violent thre ats. Some Americ ans grew w ary of alleg ed possible enemies in their mids t and ha te crimesagains t Muslim Americ ans—and those thought to b e Muslims —surg ed in the a fterma th. Fearing tha t terroris tsmight s trike within the na tion ’s borders a gain, and a ware o f the chronic lack o f cooperation among diff erent
federal la w enf orcement a gencies , Bush cre ated the Offic e of Homeland Security in Octob er 2001. The ne xtyear, Congres s passed the Homeland Security A ct, cre ating the Dep artment o f Homeland Security , whichcentraliz ed control o ver a numb er o f diff erent g overnment functions in order to b etter c ontrol thre ats at home(Figure 32.6 ). The B ush adminis tration also pushe d the US A Patriot A ct through C ongres s, which ena bled lawenforcement a gencies to monitor citiz ens’ e -mails and phone c onversa tions without a w arrant .MY ST ORY882 32 • The Chal leng es o f the T wenty -Firs t Centur y
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FIGURE 32.6 The Depar tment o f Homeland Security has man y duties , including g uarding U .S. bor ders and, as thisorganizational char t sho ws, wielding c ontr ol over the Coas t Guar d, the Secr et Ser vice, U.S. Cus toms , and a mul titudeof other la w enf orcement ag encies .
The B ush adminis tration w as fierc ely c ommit ted to ro oting out thre ats to the Unite d Sta tes wherev er the yorigina ted, and in the w eeks a fter Septemb er 11, the C entral Intellig ence Ag ency (CIA) sc oure d the glob e,sweeping up thousands o f young Muslim men . Bec ause U .S. la w prohibits the use o f tor ture , the CIAtrans ferre d some o f these prisoners to other na tions —a practic e kno wn as rendition or e xtraordinar yrendition—where the lo cal authorities c an use metho ds o f interrog ation not allo wed in the Unite d Sta tes.
While the CIA op erates o verse as, the F ederal B ureau of Investigation (FBI) is the chief f ederal la w enf orcementagency within U .S. na tional b orders . Its activities are limite d by, among other things , the F ourth Amendment ,which protects citiz ens a gains t unre asona ble se arches and seizures . Beginning in 2002, ho wever, the B ushadminis tration implemente d a wide -ranging program o f warrantles s domes tic wiretapping , kno wn as theTerroris t Sur veillanc e Program , by the N ational Security Ag ency (NS A). The shaky c onstitutional b asis f or this
program w as ultima tely rev ealed in A ugus t 2006, when a f ederal judg e in Detroit ordere d the program ende dimme diately.
The use o f unc onstitutional wire taps to prosecute the w ar on terrorism w as only one w ay the new thre atchalleng ed authorities in the Unite d Sta tes. Another problem w as deciding wha t to do with f oreign terroris tscapture d on the b attlefields in Afghanis tan and Iraq . In traditional c onflicts , where b oth sides are unif orme dcomb atants , the r ules o f eng agement and the tre atment o f prisoners o f war are cle ar. But in the new w ar onterror , extracting intellig ence about up coming a ttacks b ecame a top priority tha t sup erse ded human rights and
constitutional c oncerns . For tha t purp ose, the Unite d Sta tes b egan transp orting men susp ecte d of beingmemb ers o f al-Qae da to the U .S. na val base a t Guantanamo Ba y, Cub a, for ques tioning . The B ushadminis tration la beled the detainees “unla wful c omb atants ,” in an eff ort to a void a ffording them the rightsguarantee d to prisoners o f war, such as protection from tor ture , by interna tional tre aties such as the Genev aConventions . Furthermore , the J ustice Dep artment argue d tha t the prisoners w ere una ble to sue f or their
rights in U .S. c ourts on the grounds tha t the c onstitution did not apply to U .S. territories . It w as only in 2006that the Supreme C ourt ruled in Hamdan v . Rums feldthat the militar y tribunals tha t trie d Guantanamoprisoners viola ted both U .S. federal la w and the Genev a Conventions .32.1 • The W ar on T error 88332.2 The Domestic MissionLEARNING OBJEC TIVES
By the end o f this section, y ou wil l be able t o:
•Discus s the Bush adminis tration ’s economic theories and tax policies , and their eff ects on the Americaneconom y•Explain ho w the f eder al government at temp ted to impr ove the American public education s ystem•Describe the f eder al government ’s response t o Hurricane K atrina•Identif y the causes o f the Gr eat R ecession o f 2008 and its eff ect on the a verage citiz en
By the time Georg e W. Bush b ecame president , the c oncept o f supply -side ec onomics had b ecome an ar ticle o ffaith within the R epublic an P arty. The o ft-rep eated argument w as tha t tax cuts f or the w ealth y would allo wthem to in vest more and cre ate jobs f or ev eryone else . This b elief in the self -regula tory powers o f comp etitionalso ser ved as the f ounda tion o f Bush’s education ref orm . But b y the end o f 2008, ho wever, Americ ans’ faith inthe dynamics o f the free mark et had b een b adly shak en. The failure o f the homeland security app aratus during
Hurric ane K atrina and the ong oing challeng e of the Iraq W ar comp ounde d the eff ects o f the ble ak ec onomicsitua tion .
OPENING AND CL OSING THE GAPThe R epublic an P arty pla tform f or the 2000 election o ffered the Americ an p eople an opp ortunity to onc e againtest the ros y expecta tions o f supply -side ec onomics . In 2001, B ush and the R epublic ans pushe d through a$1.35 trillion tax cut b y lowering tax ra tes acros s the b oard but reser ving the larg est cuts f or those in thehighes t tax brack ets. This w as in the fac e of calls b y Republic ans f or a b alanc ed budg et, which B ush insis ted
would happ en when the so -called job cre ators e xpande d the ec onom y by using their incre ased inc ome toinvest in busines s.
The cuts w ere c ontro versial; the rich w ere g etting richer while the middle and lo wer clas ses b ore aprop ortionally larg er share o f the na tion ’s tax burden . Betw een 1966 and 2001, one -half o f the na tion ’s inc omegaine d from incre ased pro ductivity w ent to the top 0.01 p ercent o f earners . By 2005, drama tic e xamples o fincome ine quity w ere incre asing; the chief e xecutiv e of Wal-Mar t earne d $15 million tha t year, roughly 950times wha t the c omp any’s average as sociate made . The he ad o f the c onstruction c omp any K. B. Homes made
$150 million , or f our thousand times wha t the a verage construction w orker e arne d tha t same y ear. Even asproductivity climb ed, workers’ inc omes s tagnated; with a larg er share o f the w ealth , the v ery rich fur thersolidifie d their influenc e on public p olicy . Left with a smaller share o f the ec onomic pie , average workers hadfewer resourc es to impro ve their liv es or c ontribute to the na tion ’s prosp erity b y, for e xample , educ atingthemselv es and their children .
Another g ap tha t had b een widening f or y ears w as the e duc ation g ap. Some e duc ation rese archers had argue dthat Americ an s tudents w ere b eing left b ehind . In 1983, a c ommis sion es tablishe d by Ronald R eagan hadpublishe d a sob ering as sessment o f the Americ an e duc ational s ystem entitle dA Nation a t Risk . The rep ortargue d tha t Americ an s tudents w ere more p oorly e duc ated than their p eers in other c ountries , esp ecially inareas such as ma th and scienc e, and w ere thus unprep ared to c omp ete in the glob al mark etplac e.
Furthermore , tes t scores rev ealed serious e ducational achiev ement g aps b etween White s tudents and s tudentsof color . Touting himself as the “ education president ,” Bush sought to intro duce ref orms tha t would close thesegaps.
His adminis tration o ffered tw o potential solutions to these problems . First, it sought to hold scho olsaccounta ble f or raising s tandards and ena bling s tudents to meet them . The No Child Left Behind A ct, signe dinto la w in J anuar y 2002, erecte d a s ystem o f tes ting to me asure and ultima tely impro ve student p erformanc ein re ading and ma th a t all scho ols tha t rec eived federal funds ( Figure 32.7 ). Scho ols whose s tudents p erforme dpoorly on the tes ts w ould b e labeled “in nee d of impro vement .” If p oor p erformanc e continue d, scho ols c ould
face chang es in curricula and te achers , or ev en the prosp ect o f closure .884 32 • The Chal leng es o f the T wenty -Firs t Centur yAccess for fr ee a t opens tax. org.
FIGURE 32.7 President Bush signed the No Child L eft Behind Act int o law in Januar y 2002. The act r equir es schoolsystems t o set high s tandar ds for students , plac e “highl y qualified” t eachers in the clas sroom, and giv e militar yrecruit ers c ontact inf ormation f or students .
The sec ond prop osed solution w as to giv e students the opp ortunity to a ttend scho ols with b etter p erformanc erecords . Some o f these might b echar ter scho ols, ins titutions funde d by local tax monies in much the sameway as public scho ols, but a ble to ac cept priv ate dona tions and e xempt from some o f the r ules public scho olsmus t follow. During the adminis tration o f Georg e H. W . Bush , the dev elopment o f char ter scho ols had g athere dmomentum , and the Americ an F edera tion o f Teachers w elcome d them as plac es to emplo y inno vative
teaching metho ds or o ffer sp ecializ ed ins truction in p articular subjects . President Georg e W. Bush no wencoura ged states to grant e ducational funding v ouchers to p arents , who c ould use them to p ay for a priv ateeducation f or their children if the y chose . These v ouchers w ere funde d by tax rev enue tha t would other wisehave gone to public scho ols.
THE 2004 ELEC TION AND BUSH’S SECOND TERMIn the w ake of the 9/11 a ttacks , Americ ans had rallie d around their president in a g esture o f patriotic lo yalty,giving B ush appro val ra tings o f 90 p ercent. Even f ollowing the firs t few months o f the Iraq w ar, his appro valrating remaine d his toric ally high a t appro xima tely 70 p ercent. But as the 2004 election appro ache d,opp osition to the w ar in Iraq b egan to gro w. While B ush c ould b oast of a numb er o f achiev ements a t home and
abroad during his firs t term , the narro w victor y he achiev ed in 2000 a ugure d poorly f or his chanc es forreelection in 2004 and a suc cessful sec ond term .
ReelectionAs the 2004 c amp aign ramp ed up , the president w as p ersis tently dogg ed by rising criticism o f the violenc e ofthe Iraq w ar and the fact tha t his adminis tration ’s claims o f WMDs had b een gre atly o verstated. In the end , nosuch w eapons w ere ev er found . These criticisms w ere amplifie d by gro wing interna tional c oncern o ver thetreatment o f prisoners a t the Guantanamo Ba y detention c amp and widespre ad dis gust over the tor ture
conducte d by U.S. tro ops a t the prison in Abu Ghraib , Iraq , which sur faced only months b efore the election(Figure 32.8 ).32.2 • The Domes tic Mis sion 885FIGURE 32.8 The firs t twenty cap tives w ere processed at the Guantanamo Ba y det ention camp on Januar y 11,2002 (a). F rom lat e 2003 t o earl y 2004, prisoners held in Abu Ghr aib, Iraq, w ere tortured and humiliat ed in a v arietyof ways (b). U .S. soldiers jumped on and beat them, led them on leashes , made them pose nak ed, and urinat ed on
them. The r elease o f phot ographs o f the abuse r aised an out cry around the w orld and gr eatly diminished the alr eadyflagging suppor t for American int ervention in Ir aq.
In March 2004, an ambush b y Iraqi insurg ents o f a c onvoy of priv ate militar y contractors from Blackw ater US Ain the to wn o f Fallujah w est of Ba ghdad , and the subse quent tor ture and mutila tion o f the f our c apture dmerc enaries , sho cked the Americ an public . But the ev ent also highlighte d the gro wing insurg ency a gains t U.S.
occup ation , the esc alating sectarian c onflict b etween the newly emp owered Shia Muslims and the minority o fthe f ormerly r uling Sunni , and the esc alating c osts of a w ar in volving a larg e numb er o f priv ate contractorsthat, by conser vative es tima tes, appro ache d $1.7 trillion b y 2013. J ust as imp ortantly , the Americ an c amp aignin Iraq had div erted resourc es from the w ar a gains t al-Qae da in Afghanis tan, where U .S tro ops w ere no closerto capturing Osama bin Laden , the mas termind b ehind the 9/11 a ttacks .
With tw o hot w ars o verse as, one o f which app eared to b e spiraling out o f control , the Demo crats nomina ted adecorated Vietnam W ar v eteran , Mas sachuset ts sena tor J ohn K erry (Figure 32.9 ), to challeng e Bush f or thepresidency . As someone with c omb at experienc e, three Purple He arts, and a f oreign p olicy b ackground , Kerryseeme d lik e the right challeng er in a time o f war. But his rec ord o f supp ort for the in vasion o f Iraq made hiscriticism o f the incumb ent les s comp elling and e arne d him the b yname “ Waffler ” from R epublic ans. The B ush
camp aign also sought to characteriz e Kerry as an elitis t out o f touch with regular Americ ans—Kerry hadstudie d overse as, spoke fluent F rench , and marrie d a w ealth y foreign-b orn heires s. Republic an supp ortersalso unle ashe d an a ttack on K erry’s Vietnam W ar rec ord, falsely claiming he had lie d about his e xperienc e andfraudulently rec eived his me dals . Kerry’s reluctanc e to embrac e his p ast leadership o f Vietnam V eteransAgains t the W ar w eakened the enthusiasm o f antiw ar Americ ans while op ening him up to criticisms from
veterans groups . This c ombina tion c ompromise d the imp act o f his challeng e to the incumb ent in a time o f war.886 32 • The Chal leng es o f the T wenty -Firs t Centur yAccess for fr ee a t opens tax. org.
FIGURE 32.9 John K erry ser ved in the U .S. Na vy during the Vietnam W ar and r epresent ed Mas sachuset ts in the U .S.
Senat e from 1985 t o 2013. Her e he gr eets sailors fr om the US SSampson . Kerry was sworn in as P resident Obama’ sSecr etar y of Stat e in 2013.
Urged by the R epublic an P arty to “ stay the c ourse ” with B ush , voters lis tene d. Bush w on another narro wvictor y, and the R epublic an P arty did w ell o verall , picking up f our se ats in the Sena te and incre asing itsmajority there to fifty -five. In the House , the R epublic an P arty gaine d three se ats, adding to its majority thereas w ell. Acros s the na tion , mos t governorships also w ent to R epublic ans, and R epublic ans domina ted man ystate legisla tures .
Despite a narro w win , the president made a b old declara tion in his firs t new s conferenc e following the election .
“I earne d capital in this c amp aign , politic al capital , and no w I intend to sp end it .” The p olicies on which hechose to sp end this p olitic al capital include d the p artial priv atization o f Social Security and new limits oncourt-awarde d dama ges in me dical malpractic e lawsuits . In f oreign a ffairs , Bush promise d tha t the Unite dStates w ould w ork to wards “ ending tyrann y in the w orld .” But a t home and a broad, the president achiev ed fewof his sec ond-term g oals. Ins tead, his sec ond term in o ffice became as sociated with the p ersis tent challeng e of
pacifying Iraq , the failure o f the homeland security app aratus during Hurric ane K atrina, and the mos t sev ereeconomic crisis sinc e the Gre at Depres sion .
A Failed Domestic AgendaThe B ush adminis tration had planne d a series o f free -mark et ref orms , but c orruption , scandals , andDemo crats in C ongres s made these g oals hard to ac complish . Plans to c onvert So cial Security into a priv ate-mark et mechanism relie d on the claim tha t demographic trends w ould ev entually mak e the s ystemuna fforda ble f or the shrinking numb er o f young w orkers, but critics c ountere d tha t this w as e asily fix ed.
Privatization , on the other hand , thre atene d to derail the mis sion o f the N ew De al w elfare a gency and turn itinto a f ee g enera tor f or stock brok ers and W all Street financiers . Similarly unp opular w as the a ttempt toabolish the es tate tax . Labeled the “ death tax ” by its critics , its a bolishment w ould ha ve benefit ted only thewealthies t 1 p ercent. As a result o f the 2003 tax cuts , the gro wing f ederal deficit did not help mak e the c ase f orRepublic ans.
The na tion fac ed another p olicy crisis when the R epublic an-domina ted House o f Representa tives appro ved abill making the undo cumente d status o f millions o f immigrants a f elon y and criminalizing the act o f emplo yingor kno wingly aiding undo cumente d immigrants . In resp onse , millions o f immigrants , along with other criticsof the bill , took to the s treets in protes t. Wha t the y sa w as the civil rights challeng e of their g enera tion ,conser vatives re ad as a dang erous challeng e to la w and na tional security . Congres s ev entually a gree d on a
mas sive build-up o f the U .S. Border P atrol and the c onstruction o f a sev en-hundre d-mile -long f ence along theborder with Me xico, but the deep divisions o ver immigra tion and the s tatus o f up to tw elve millionundo cumente d immigrants remaine d unresolv ed.32.2 • The Domes tic Mis sion 887