Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960

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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 PDF
FIGURE 28.1
Is This Tomorrow?
warned Americans about the potential horrors of living under a Communist
dictatorship. Postwar propaganda such as this comic book, the cover of which showed invading Russians attacking
Americans and the U.S. flag in flames, served to drum up fear during the Cold War.
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
28.2 The Cold War
28.3 The American Dream
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
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28
Post-War Prosperity and Cold War
Fears, 1945-1960

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Download
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28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Identify the issues that the nation faced during demobilization
Explain the goals and objectives of the Truman administration
Evaluate the actions taken by the U.S. government to address the concerns of returning veterans
FIGURE 28.2 (credit: “1953”: modi[cation of work by Library of Congress)
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DEMOBILIZATION AND THE RETURN TO CIVILIAN LIFE
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754 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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The GI Bill of Rights
2G_A
LF.L-G
GI Bill Q!8>E9RE G
GLE/
LGC
CE
"$
HG
E
FIGURE 28.3 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, or GI Bill, on June 22,
1944, just weeks after the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, and more than a year before the end of the war.
/CC
28.1 • The Challenges of Peacetime 755

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-1
E$7?:6G;E;E7?;6G
=E9G_
"$E/7?;6E0
GAA
E/AG0E.EE
*_"$AE
#G"$E
_E/

"$_E_(G/G
E
The Return of the Japanese
2G
E%
2
E$7?::G!-%
G%7?:;GE$GG
%E/
G_%
G_%E
!G%E/
GMN
E(E2%
GE
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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*22$$E
THE FAIR DEAL
G/-L)E
G
E/G
 G..
GE2
GE$7?:?G/MFair
DealGNL)E#!
_)+Q)+RE#
G
7?:<G+-0
.E/GG%7?:>G
E
GG-G
MNGE/
(^7E;/LG
LE/

756 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-2
E-L! +
GG
EGE!G/A
#GG/LE
28.2 The Cold War
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Explain how and why the Cold War emerged in the wake of World War II
Describe the steps taken by the U.S. government to oppose Communist expansion in Europe and Asia
Discuss the government’s efforts to root out Communist influences in the United States
22$$G0..0
C"G$G%CE
 E%.G.
0G  GA.G
.`.0E#
E/0.
`
E$`.0GG'
GGAE
/ 
GGE2"G!G"G$G%G
G0..0
GGG
GE
FROM ISOLATIONISM TO ENGAGEMENT
/0.
E#GA22$$G
"!G0.
G
E
*_!-G#/
. E#-4G
.0+E+G%7=
8G7?:;G/.L"E#
""
CL22$Q!8>E:RE
28.2 • The Cold War 757
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-3
FIGURE 28.4 At the postwar conference in Potsdam, Germany, Harry Truman stands between Joseph Stalin (right)
and Clement Atlee (left). Atlee became prime minister of Great Britain, replacing Winston Churchill, while the
conference was taking place.
0..0_+G_
E 
LG
`E/A
 Cold WarE..0E.E
G2FG
GGE$G
G`
GG&1E
CONTAINMENT ABROAD
$!7?:<G"&G._0E.E(G
AA2GE$M'/GN&
..0MN
`E&G.0

0.E#.
.`CC
E/G
containmentG0E.EE
G
 domino theory  F
)GG
E'G
.E/A(7?:<
2G Iron Curtain  MN2
 .0E
/.
E$G0E.E).7?:=E
/).
$Q$RE$
!G)
7?:?E
758 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-4
The Truman Doctrine
$ G22$$
)"E"")E
/""E$(
7?:=G"
 "E.G0
./G"/_
GG
E G
E//0E.E2E
The Truman Doctrine
In 1947, Great Britain, which had assumed responsibility for the disarming of German troops in Greece at the
end of World War II, could no longer afford to provide [nancial support for the authoritarian Greek government,
which was attempting to win a civil war against Greek leftist rebels. President Truman, unwilling to allow a
Communist government to come to power there, requested Congress to provide funds for the government of
Greece to continue its [ght against the rebels. Truman also requested aid for the government of Turkey to [ght
the forces of Communism in that country. He said:
“At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The
choice is too often not a free one.
Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to
the East.
The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of
poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep
that hope alive.
The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms.
If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world—and we shall surely endanger the welfare
of our own nation.
Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.
I am con[dent that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.”
What role is Truman suggesting that the United States assume in the postwar world? Does the United States still
assume this role?
The Marshall Plan
7?:<G_EG 
E/2 _GG
GE.
EG_$
!E//G.."E(G
 -+G Marshall PlanE
7?:>7?;7G^79 E
/LGE/
GG
!$
DEFINING AMERICAN
28.2 • The Cold War 759
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-5
E'GG
0. E.
E/.0(+G
G  0E.EE
/E
George C. Marshall and the Nobel Peace Prize
The youngest child of a Pennsylvania businessman and Democrat, George C. Marshall (Figure 28.5) chose a
military career. He attended the Virginia Military Institute, was a veteran of World War I, and spent the rest of his
life either in the military or otherwise in the service of his country, including as President Truman’s Secretary of
State. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953, the only soldier to ever receive that honor. Below is an
excerpt of his remarks as he accepted the award.
FIGURE 28.5 During World War II, George C. Marshall was responsible for expanding the 189,000-member U.S.
Army into a modern, [ghting force of eight million by 1942. As Secretary of State under Truman, he proposed the
European Recovery Program to aid European economies struggling after the war.
“There has been considerable comment over the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to a soldier. I am afraid this
does not seem as remarkable to me as it quite evidently appears to others. I know a great deal of the horrors and
tragedies of war. Today, as chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission, it is my duty to supervise
the construction and maintenance of military cemeteries in many countries overseas, particularly in Western
Europe. The cost of war in human lives is constantly spread before me, written neatly in many ledgers whose
columns are gravestones. I am deeply moved to [nd some means or method of avoiding another calamity of war.
Almost daily I hear from the wives, or mothers, or families of the fallen. The tragedy of the aftermath is almost
constantly before me.
I share with you an active concern for some practical method for avoiding war. . . . A very strong military posture
is vitally necessary today. How long it must continue I am not prepared to estimate, but I am sure that it is too
narrow a basis on which to build a dependable, long-enduring peace. The guarantee for a long continued peace
will depend on other factors in addition to a moderated military strength, and no less important. Perhaps the
most important single factor will be a spiritual regeneration to develop goodwill, faith, and understanding among
nations. Economic factors will undoubtedly play an important part. Agreements to secure a balance of power,
however disagreeable they may seem, must likewise be considered. And with all these there must be wisdom
and the will to act on that wisdom.”
What steps did Marshall recommend be taken to maintain a lasting peace? To what extent have todays nations
MY STORY
760 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-6
heeded his advice?
Showdown in Europe
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%7?:>E#
G0E.EE
0G0.G"G!
2Q!8>E<RE$7?:?G2
)/*Q)/*RG
E*(78G7?:?G
G.E*(89G!-
"Q!-"RG_2"G
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7?:?E
FIGURE 28.6 American C-47 transport planes (a) are loaded with staged supplies at a French airport before taking
off for Berlin. Residents of Berlin wait for a U.S. plane (b) carrying needed supplies to land at Templehof Airport in
the American sector of the city.
CONTAINMENT AT HOME
$7?:?G_0.
.E!G8?G7?:?G.0
_C0.E
G*7G7?:?G+(5
)7?8=E/)
G&AG/7?:?E
$GA.
0E.E.
0.E$G!7?;6G2%
(G-G._E
28.2 • The Cold War 761

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-7
7?;6G"&!G"A
(+.GE
$!E/
% -G%
7?;9E.G%G
G.0E
!0.L
(5E-L)
/L!MGNG
-E$G(87G7?:=G/
 *?>9;G!$
E.
_E
$G#0AQ#0R
7?9>E$
GGE#0
#
A.E2H
E/!G
G blacklistG
E)7?:67?;6
'G#G'#G
+-G.E
TO THE TRENCHES AGAIN
%0E.E_0.G
E/.0
&22$$G0.
E/..&G.
0.&E)&LGG
E$7?;6G._)&L
&$..&)&E
*%8;G7?;6G)&+LAG
).&E/_0E.E
G)&
G0.L C%E/0)Q0)RG
7?:;GE*%8=G0).)
&L0).&E
.G.0G0)
L./(5L
+L-E
*%8=G/0E.E.&E/
&+E0E.EA$.7;
)&Q!8>E=RE)&
AG0)0E.E"(E
(L)&.&
)&EG+/HG0)
4-G)&G(L/LE
762 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-8
5 G)&
`G)&0E.EE!
)&L-G)&
.G(/E/G
GE(/L
-GE
$7?;7G/(E/%
.G(MGG
GEN)G(L)4
LE
FIGURE 28.7 After the initial invasion of South Korea by the North Korean People’s Democratic Army, the United
Nations established a defensive line in the southern part of the country. The landing at Inchon in September
reversed the tide of the war and allowed UN forces under General Douglas MacArthur to retake the city of Seoul,
which had fallen to North Korean troops in the early days of the war.
%7?;7G0))&
AGE#G
E/E/
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E!G%8=G7?;9E).
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9<G;660E.EH&E
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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E
&GA
0.E0E.E.G.%(
E+-
.-/-)(
GE$7?;9G."
*G(1GA0E.E
G.LE
28.2 • The Cold War 763

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-9
+G(0E.EE/L
E!%7?;:GA(#G
G_G(L
0.Q!8>E>RE$7?;:G0E.E._
GE
FIGURE 28.8 Senator Joseph McCarthy (left) consults with Roy Cohn (right) during the Army-McCarthy hearings.
Cohn, a lawyer who worked for McCarthy, was responsible for investigating State Department libraries overseas for
“subversive” books.
*0.G
(GE
(AG(GG. 
MGNE(
.
GE
28.3 The American Dream
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe President Dwight D. Eisenhowers domestic and foreign policies
Discuss gender roles in the 1950s
Discuss the growth of the suburbs and the effect of suburbanization on American society
2G
"22$$EE G
0. 7?:;G
E'G
GE$G
L)'L
E
WE LIKE IKE
#/G7?;8
G$.G-E G
 22$$Q!8>E?RE 
&G`_E#
_G
-(E)GG
764 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-10
..#E
FIGURE 28.9 Dwight D. Eisenhower was the perfect presidential candidate in 1952. He had never before run for
of[ce or even cast a vote, and thus had no political record to be challenged or criticized.
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.;:>=Q!8>E76RE2
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E#
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#/G 
E#G
-G)..E#
G7?<7G military-industrial
complexG_
_E#%
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GE
FIGURE 28.10 The above map shows the resounding victory of Dwight D. Eisenhower over Adlai Stevenson in the
1952 election. Stevenson carried only the South, where White people had voted for Democratic Party candidates
since the time of the Civil War.
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E#)'
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28.3 • The American Dream 765
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-11
+.0
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GE.
_
E
A Guide for Surviving Nuclear War”
To prepare its citizens for the possibility of nuclear war, in 1950, the U.S. government published and distributed
informative pamphlets such as “A Guide for Surviving Nuclear War” excerpted here.
“Just like [re bombs and ordinary high explosives, atomic weapons cause most of their death and damage by
blast and heat. So [rst let’s look at a few things you can do to escape these two dangers.
Even if you have only a second’s warning, there is one important thing you can do to lessen your chances of injury
by blast: Fall flat on your face.
More than half of all wounds are the result of being bodily tossed about or being struck by falling and flying
objects. If you lie down flat, you are least likely to be thrown about. If you have time to pick a good spot, there is
less chance of your being struck by flying glass and other things.
If you are inside a building, the best place to flatten out is close against the cellar wall. If you haven’t time to get
down there, lie down along an inside wall, or duck under a bed or table. . . .
If caught out-of-doors, either drop down alongside the base of a good substantial building—avoid flimsy, wooden
ones likely to be blown over on top of you—or else jump in any handy ditch or gutter.
When you fall flat to protect yourself from a bombing, don’t look up to see what is coming. Even during the
daylight hours, the flash from a bursting A-bomb can cause several moments of blindness, if you’re facing that
way. To prevent it, bury your face in your arms and hold it there for 10 to 12 seconds after the explosion. . . .
If you work in the open, always wear full-length, loose-[tting, light-colored clothes in time of emergency. Never
go around with your sleeves rolled up. Always wear a hat—the brim could save you a serious face burn.”
What do you think was the purpose of these directions? Do you think they could actually help people survive an
atomic bomb blast? If not, why publish such booklets?
CLICK AND EXPLORE
1 _ QFUUEUU7;R 7?;7
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"
E/
E
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2GE2
7?;6G/G"L 22
$$GE#
_E
#G0..
E/.0L
Sputnik
Q!8>E77RG_G*7?;=E$.7?;>G)
AMERICANA
766 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-12
 G^==;G
E).
!^766G^9:7?;>^79:7?;?E
*
E
FIGURE 28.11 The launch of the Soviet satellite
Sputnik
frightened many in the United States, who feared that
Soviet technology had surpassed their own. To calm these fears, Americans domesticated
Sputnik
, creating
children’s games based on it and using its shape as a decorative motif.
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. EG
&/G 
E/G!_1
!L$G E'G0.
#.7?;<E/0.
"G!G$.5 L
7?;<E$G G`.0G
E
SUBURBANIZATION
 .0G
E G
GG_7?;6
E2"
G
E$7?:6G0.:9E<E7?<6G
<8E(
EA
G22$$E
.E22$$G0.
GE)G
E0
GG
GAA
28.3 • The American Dream 767
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-13
"$E
22$$G
GG
E GE
*_2'G
)G'$G7?:=E/
 LevittownE
'L^>G666E/_
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'G)%+Q!8>E78RE
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E'
H2E'
2E
FIGURE 28.12 This aerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania, reveals acres of standardized homes. The roads were
curved to prevent cars from speeding through the residential community that was home to many young families.
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768 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-14
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E
FIGURE 28.13 In the late 1940s, a network of newly constructed highways connected suburban Long Island with
Manhattan. The nation’s new road network also served a military purpose; interstate highways made it easier to
deploy troops in the event of a national emergency.
THE ORGANIZATION MAN
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28.3 • The American Dream 769

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-15
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baby boom E
AAE
(GE)G:6
AE/
MNCGG
E
/
E GGGG
E!_0E.EGG
EG
AG
`LE(E
GE)
G
.
GG
G
-
GG_E
/`
E
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe Americans’ different responses to rock and roll music
Discuss the way contemporary movies and television reflected postwar American society
2G_
_E(GG`
E*GGG
GGE
ROCKING AROUND THE CLOCK
$7?:6GGG-G
E.-/
_--J./#
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770 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-16
FIGURE 28.14 The band Bill Haley and His Comets (a) was among the [rst to launch the new genre of rock and roll.
Their hit song “Rock Around the Clock” supposedly caused some teens to break into violent behavior when they
heard it. Chuck Berry (b) was a performer who combined rhythm and blues and rock and roll. He dazzled crowds
with guitar solos and electrifying performances.
#2
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E
28.4 • Popular Culture and Mass Media 771
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-17
FIGURE 28.15 One of the original Hollywood Ten, director Edward Dmytryk publicly announced he had once been a
Communist and, in April 1951, answered questions and “named names” before the House Committee on Un-
American Activities.
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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772 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-18
FIGURE 28.16 An American family relaxes in front of their television set in 1958. Many gathered not only to watch
the programming but also to eat dinner. The marketing of small folding tray tables and frozen “TV dinners”
encouraged such behavior.
1FG
GGGGGGG
E(2F#
GG
'$

!&
7?;6E/
C_MN
E2G
GE+
&
G
--
G
/((

E
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Explain how Presidents Truman and Eisenhower addressed civil rights issues
Discuss efforts by African Americans to end discrimination and segregation
Describe southern White peoples’ response to the civil rights movement
$22$$G
0.E$.G

-E
GG
2E2G
E#2G
E
EARLY VICTORIES
22$$GM1GN
_E
22$$GG_G0.
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28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 773
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-19
E!G
G
E#G2
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E$G'7?;=G
E
CLICK AND EXPLORE
!  QFUUEUU7;'R 
2G7?;=
'
E
/GGE$
7?::GG$(G1
E$
(E1

7?:<G0E.E.
E/%
-G2
0..L
(
E
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.E&
G0E.E.
E$7?;6G
)+0E.E.
MN7>?<
+E!
G
E
.E+
#(.G
0/
E/G
G0E.E.G
MGNG
E
)GE*7;G7?:=G %
- G_E#_
)'GE
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774 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-20
FIGURE 28.17 Baseball legend Jackie Robinson (a) was active in the civil rights movement. He served on the
NAACP’s board of directors and helped to found an African American-owned bank. Alice Coachman (b), who
competed in track and [eld at Tuskegee University, was the [rst Black woman to win an Olympic gold medal.
DESEGREGATION AND INTEGRATION
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E
FIGURE 28.18 This map shows those states in which racial segregation in public education was required by law
before the 1954
Brown v. Board of Education
decision. In 1960, four years later, fewer than 10 percent of southern
African American students attended the same schools as White students.
Thurgood Marshall on Fighting Racism
As a law student in 1933, Thurgood Marshall (Figure 28.19) was recruited by his mentor Charles Hamilton
DEFINING AMERICAN
28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 775
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-21
Houston to assist in gathering information for the defense of a Black man in Virginia accused of killing two White
women. His continued close association with Houston led Marshall to aggressively defend Black people in the
court system and to use the courts as the weapon by which equal rights might be extracted from the U.S.
Constitution and a White racist system. Houston also suggested that it would be important to establish legal
precedents regarding the
Plessy v. Ferguson
ruling of separate but equal.
FIGURE 28.19 In 1956, NAACP leaders (from left to right) Henry L. Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill, and
Thurgood Marshall present a new poster in the campaign against southern White racism. Marshall successfully
argued the landmark case
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954) before the U.S. Supreme Court and later became
the court’s [rst African American justice.
By 1938, Marshall had become “Mr. Civil Rights” and formally organized the NAACP’s Legal Defense and
Education Fund in 1940 to garner the resources to take on cases to break the racist justice system of America. A
direct result of Marshalls energies and commitment was his 1940 victory in a Supreme Court case,
Chambers v.
Florida
, which held that confessions obtained by violence and torture were inadmissible in a court of law. In
1943, he won a case on behalf of Black parents protesting school segregation in suburban Hillburn, New York.
His most well-known case was
Brown v. Board of Education
in 1954, which held that state laws establishing
separate public schools for Black and White students were unconstitutional.
Later in life, Marshall reflected on his career [ghting racism in a speech at Howard Law School in 1978:
“Be aware of that myth, that everything is going to be all right. Don’t give in. I add that, because it seems to me,
that what we need to do today is to refocus. Back in the 30s and 40s, we could go no place but to court. We knew
then, the court was not the [nal solution. Many of us knew the [nal solution would have to be politics, if for no
other reason, politics is cheaper than lawsuits. So now we have both. We have our legal arm, and we have our
political arm. Let’s use them both. And don’t listen to this myth that it can be solved by either or that it has
already been solved. Take it from me, it has not been solved.”
When Marshall says that the problems of racism have not been solved, to what was he referring?
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776 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
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)"0E.EL767
Q!8>E86RE/_-
.E
FIGURE 28.20 In 1957, U.S. soldiers from the 101st Airborne were called in to escort the Little Rock Nine into and
around formerly all-White Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
/G'-)GG
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..E)4`
__GGE$
7?;=G(( Harlem NineG
_E
(MN
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)4E
WHITE RESPONSES
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
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A2G2
E*GMNL
E
*2E
*E2G
28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 777

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-23
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E
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E2'-L#.G&&&
L
E2E$7?;;G
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E
*7G7?;;G-+2G(
EG_E/G
2L+GG
(LE)H
2L+E/G
;G_E
*;G
-+LE('&G%E!G
(LE.E*
AGE(GG
9>7GE$%7?;<G
E/G0E.E.E/L
E
778 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-24
Key Terms
baby boom 0E.E7?:<B7?<:
blacklist 
Cold War 0..0G
`GGGG
GGG
G
containment 0E.E
desegregation 
domino theory G
G
Fair Deal +#/L
GI Bill _22$$
Iron Curtain 2  .
0`

Levittowns A
Little Rock Nine _
'-L#.
Marshall Plan 0E.E 

massive retaliation GMN(G
 A.0
_.0.
military-industrial complex _
_
rock and roll 
G
Sputnik
_G.0*7?;=
states’ rights G
G
Summary
28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
22$$G0E.EG
E/"$L
GAGHGG(
G_E(G
%G
_E
+#/-L)!G
GGGE
-GG/
E
28.2 The Cold War
%22$$`.0E/2
0..0E!.
28 • Key Terms 779

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-25
G0.
A E20.
.2G
&E/
.0.0.0.
E'
#..
G#E
28.3 The American Dream
$7?;9GE 0.E!
GE/
.
0EGG 0.
`HGE4G
G0E.EEAG
G
E
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
4
E/
E-GG
GE
GGG
GE
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
22$$G0.E
/(%
.-E/.

E 
G
G+ '-L#
.E/
E$(GG
LE/G2
E/GG
 /E
Review Questions
1E /DDDDDDDDE
E )
E .
E !
E .
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2E 2/LP
E /A#
E 
E 
E 
3E #"$P2P
4E 2.`P
E 
E 
E 
E 
5E // 22$$
DDDDDDDDE
E 
E !/5
E 
E (+
6E 2).&P
7E /_G.07?;=GDDDDDDDDE
E
/
E

E
+
E
.
8E /_'DDDDDDDDE
E G+
E )G)4
E )G)%
E +G+
9E #P
10E /DDDDDDDDE
E #
E +
E !
E .
11E 2#7?;6P
12E /)+M(E-NDDDDDDDDE
E 2
E %-
E *!
E /(
28 • Review Questions 781
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-27
13E /'-#.DDDDDDDDE
E ##
E &
E *!
E 
14E 2_
.E&
P
Critical Thinking Questions
15E #QEE
GGRP2
P
16E 20..
022$$P2`P
17E #.0P
18E 20.22$$P2
P
19E #
P
782 28 • Critical Thinking Questions
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 PDF
FIGURE 28.1
Is This Tomorrow?
warned Americans about the potential horrors of living under a Communist
dictatorship. Postwar propaganda such as this comic book, the cover of which showed invading Russians attacking
Americans and the U.S. flag in flames, served to drum up fear during the Cold War.
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
28.2 The Cold War
28.3 The American Dream
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
$//P
Q!8>E7RG7?:=G
E/0.
.0G22$$GE%.G
.0G  G
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.0E
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G
28
Post-War Prosperity and Cold War
Fears, 1945-1960

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Download
.0E/GG
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28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Identify the issues that the nation faced during demobilization
Explain the goals and objectives of the Truman administration
Evaluate the actions taken by the U.S. government to address the concerns of returning veterans
FIGURE 28.2 (credit: “1953”: modi[cation of work by Library of Congress)
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DEMOBILIZATION AND THE RETURN TO CIVILIAN LIFE
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754 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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The GI Bill of Rights
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GI Bill Q!8>E9RE G
GLE/
LGC
CE
"$
HG
E
FIGURE 28.3 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, or GI Bill, on June 22,
1944, just weeks after the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, and more than a year before the end of the war.
/CC
28.1 • The Challenges of Peacetime 755

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-1
E$7?:6G;E;E7?;6G
=E9G_
"$E/7?;6E0
GAA
E/AG0E.EE
*_"$AE
#G"$E
_E/

"$_E_(G/G
E
The Return of the Japanese
2G
E%
2
E$7?::G!-%
G%7?:;GE$GG
%E/
G_%
G_%E
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GMN
E(E2%
GE
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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THE FAIR DEAL
G/-L)E
G
E/G
 G..
GE2
GE$7?:?G/MFair
DealGNL)E#!
_)+Q)+RE#
G
7?:<G+-0
.E/GG%7?:>G
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GG-G
MNGE/
(^7E;/LG
LE/

756 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-2
E-L! +
GG
EGE!G/A
#GG/LE
28.2 The Cold War
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Explain how and why the Cold War emerged in the wake of World War II
Describe the steps taken by the U.S. government to oppose Communist expansion in Europe and Asia
Discuss the government’s efforts to root out Communist influences in the United States
22$$G0..0
C"G$G%CE
 E%.G.
0G  GA.G
.`.0E#
E/0.
`
E$`.0GG'
GGAE
/ 
GGE2"G!G"G$G%G
G0..0
GGG
GE
FROM ISOLATIONISM TO ENGAGEMENT
/0.
E#GA22$$G
"!G0.
G
E
*_!-G#/
. E#-4G
.0+E+G%7=
8G7?:;G/.L"E#
""
CL22$Q!8>E:RE
28.2 • The Cold War 757
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-3
FIGURE 28.4 At the postwar conference in Potsdam, Germany, Harry Truman stands between Joseph Stalin (right)
and Clement Atlee (left). Atlee became prime minister of Great Britain, replacing Winston Churchill, while the
conference was taking place.
0..0_+G_
E 
LG
`E/A
 Cold WarE..0E.E
G2FG
GGE$G
G`
GG&1E
CONTAINMENT ABROAD
$!7?:<G"&G._0E.E(G
AA2GE$M'/GN&
..0MN
`E&G.0

0.E#.
.`CC
E/G
containmentG0E.EE
G
 domino theory  F
)GG
E'G
.E/A(7?:<
2G Iron Curtain  MN2
 .0E
/.
E$G0E.E).7?:=E
/).
$Q$RE$
!G)
7?:?E
758 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-4
The Truman Doctrine
$ G22$$
)"E"")E
/""E$(
7?:=G"
 "E.G0
./G"/_
GG
E G
E//0E.E2E
The Truman Doctrine
In 1947, Great Britain, which had assumed responsibility for the disarming of German troops in Greece at the
end of World War II, could no longer afford to provide [nancial support for the authoritarian Greek government,
which was attempting to win a civil war against Greek leftist rebels. President Truman, unwilling to allow a
Communist government to come to power there, requested Congress to provide funds for the government of
Greece to continue its [ght against the rebels. Truman also requested aid for the government of Turkey to [ght
the forces of Communism in that country. He said:
“At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The
choice is too often not a free one.
Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to
the East.
The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of
poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep
that hope alive.
The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms.
If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world—and we shall surely endanger the welfare
of our own nation.
Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.
I am con[dent that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.”
What role is Truman suggesting that the United States assume in the postwar world? Does the United States still
assume this role?
The Marshall Plan
7?:<G_EG 
E/2 _GG
GE.
EG_$
!E//G.."E(G
 -+G Marshall PlanE
7?:>7?;7G^79 E
/LGE/
GG
!$
DEFINING AMERICAN
28.2 • The Cold War 759
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-5
E'GG
0. E.
E/.0(+G
G  0E.EE
/E
George C. Marshall and the Nobel Peace Prize
The youngest child of a Pennsylvania businessman and Democrat, George C. Marshall (Figure 28.5) chose a
military career. He attended the Virginia Military Institute, was a veteran of World War I, and spent the rest of his
life either in the military or otherwise in the service of his country, including as President Truman’s Secretary of
State. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953, the only soldier to ever receive that honor. Below is an
excerpt of his remarks as he accepted the award.
FIGURE 28.5 During World War II, George C. Marshall was responsible for expanding the 189,000-member U.S.
Army into a modern, [ghting force of eight million by 1942. As Secretary of State under Truman, he proposed the
European Recovery Program to aid European economies struggling after the war.
“There has been considerable comment over the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to a soldier. I am afraid this
does not seem as remarkable to me as it quite evidently appears to others. I know a great deal of the horrors and
tragedies of war. Today, as chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission, it is my duty to supervise
the construction and maintenance of military cemeteries in many countries overseas, particularly in Western
Europe. The cost of war in human lives is constantly spread before me, written neatly in many ledgers whose
columns are gravestones. I am deeply moved to [nd some means or method of avoiding another calamity of war.
Almost daily I hear from the wives, or mothers, or families of the fallen. The tragedy of the aftermath is almost
constantly before me.
I share with you an active concern for some practical method for avoiding war. . . . A very strong military posture
is vitally necessary today. How long it must continue I am not prepared to estimate, but I am sure that it is too
narrow a basis on which to build a dependable, long-enduring peace. The guarantee for a long continued peace
will depend on other factors in addition to a moderated military strength, and no less important. Perhaps the
most important single factor will be a spiritual regeneration to develop goodwill, faith, and understanding among
nations. Economic factors will undoubtedly play an important part. Agreements to secure a balance of power,
however disagreeable they may seem, must likewise be considered. And with all these there must be wisdom
and the will to act on that wisdom.”
What steps did Marshall recommend be taken to maintain a lasting peace? To what extent have todays nations
MY STORY
760 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-6
heeded his advice?
Showdown in Europe
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2"C(C.
%7?:>E#
G0E.EE
0G0.G"G!
2Q!8>E<RE$7?:?G2
)/*Q)/*RG
E*(78G7?:?G
G.E*(89G!-
"Q!-"RG_2"G
E/."-G "G*
7?:?E
FIGURE 28.6 American C-47 transport planes (a) are loaded with staged supplies at a French airport before taking
off for Berlin. Residents of Berlin wait for a U.S. plane (b) carrying needed supplies to land at Templehof Airport in
the American sector of the city.
CONTAINMENT AT HOME
$7?:?G_0.
.E!G8?G7?:?G.0
_C0.E
G*7G7?:?G+(5
)7?8=E/)
G&AG/7?:?E
$GA.
0E.E.
0.E$G!7?;6G2%
(G-G._E
28.2 • The Cold War 761

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-7
7?;6G"&!G"A
(+.GE
$!E/
% -G%
7?;9E.G%G
G.0E
!0.L
(5E-L)
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-E$G(87G7?:=G/
 *?>9;G!$
E.
_E
$G#0AQ#0R
7?9>E$
GGE#0
#
A.E2H
E/!G
G blacklistG
E)7?:67?;6
'G#G'#G
+-G.E
TO THE TRENCHES AGAIN
%0E.E_0.G
E/.0
&22$$G0.
E/..&G.
0.&E)&LGG
E$7?;6G._)&L
&$..&)&E
*%8;G7?;6G)&+LAG
).&E/_0E.E
G)&
G0.L C%E/0)Q0)RG
7?:;GE*%8=G0).)
&L0).&E
.G.0G0)
L./(5L
+L-E
*%8=G/0E.E.&E/
&+E0E.EA$.7;
)&Q!8>E=RE)&
AG0)0E.E"(E
(L)&.&
)&EG+/HG0)
4-G)&G(L/LE
762 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-8
5 G)&
`G)&0E.EE!
)&L-G)&
.G(/E/G
GE(/L
-GE
$7?;7G/(E/%
.G(MGG
GEN)G(L)4
LE
FIGURE 28.7 After the initial invasion of South Korea by the North Korean People’s Democratic Army, the United
Nations established a defensive line in the southern part of the country. The landing at Inchon in September
reversed the tide of the war and allowed UN forces under General Douglas MacArthur to retake the city of Seoul,
which had fallen to North Korean troops in the early days of the war.
%7?;7G0))&
AGE#G
E/E/
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E!G%8=G7?;9E).
&GAGE
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E!A`E*G
9<G;660E.EH&E
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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E
&GA
0.E0E.E.G.%(
E+-
.-/-)(
GE$7?;9G."
*G(1GA0E.E
G.LE
28.2 • The Cold War 763

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-9
+G(0E.EE/L
E!%7?;:GA(#G
G_G(L
0.Q!8>E>RE$7?;:G0E.E._
GE
FIGURE 28.8 Senator Joseph McCarthy (left) consults with Roy Cohn (right) during the Army-McCarthy hearings.
Cohn, a lawyer who worked for McCarthy, was responsible for investigating State Department libraries overseas for
“subversive” books.
*0.G
(GE
(AG(GG. 
MGNE(
.
GE
28.3 The American Dream
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe President Dwight D. Eisenhowers domestic and foreign policies
Discuss gender roles in the 1950s
Discuss the growth of the suburbs and the effect of suburbanization on American society
2G
"22$$EE G
0. 7?:;G
E'G
GE$G
L)'L
E
WE LIKE IKE
#/G7?;8
G$.G-E G
 22$$Q!8>E?RE 
&G`_E#
_G
-(E)GG
764 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-10
..#E
FIGURE 28.9 Dwight D. Eisenhower was the perfect presidential candidate in 1952. He had never before run for
of[ce or even cast a vote, and thus had no political record to be challenged or criticized.
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.;:>=Q!8>E76RE2
_7?;9G 
E#
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#/G 
E#G
-G)..E#
G7?<7G military-industrial
complexG_
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GE
FIGURE 28.10 The above map shows the resounding victory of Dwight D. Eisenhower over Adlai Stevenson in the
1952 election. Stevenson carried only the South, where White people had voted for Democratic Party candidates
since the time of the Civil War.
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E#)'
Mmassive retaliationGN_.
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28.3 • The American Dream 765
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-11
+.0
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GE.
_
E
A Guide for Surviving Nuclear War”
To prepare its citizens for the possibility of nuclear war, in 1950, the U.S. government published and distributed
informative pamphlets such as “A Guide for Surviving Nuclear War” excerpted here.
“Just like [re bombs and ordinary high explosives, atomic weapons cause most of their death and damage by
blast and heat. So [rst let’s look at a few things you can do to escape these two dangers.
Even if you have only a second’s warning, there is one important thing you can do to lessen your chances of injury
by blast: Fall flat on your face.
More than half of all wounds are the result of being bodily tossed about or being struck by falling and flying
objects. If you lie down flat, you are least likely to be thrown about. If you have time to pick a good spot, there is
less chance of your being struck by flying glass and other things.
If you are inside a building, the best place to flatten out is close against the cellar wall. If you haven’t time to get
down there, lie down along an inside wall, or duck under a bed or table. . . .
If caught out-of-doors, either drop down alongside the base of a good substantial building—avoid flimsy, wooden
ones likely to be blown over on top of you—or else jump in any handy ditch or gutter.
When you fall flat to protect yourself from a bombing, don’t look up to see what is coming. Even during the
daylight hours, the flash from a bursting A-bomb can cause several moments of blindness, if you’re facing that
way. To prevent it, bury your face in your arms and hold it there for 10 to 12 seconds after the explosion. . . .
If you work in the open, always wear full-length, loose-[tting, light-colored clothes in time of emergency. Never
go around with your sleeves rolled up. Always wear a hat—the brim could save you a serious face burn.”
What do you think was the purpose of these directions? Do you think they could actually help people survive an
atomic bomb blast? If not, why publish such booklets?
CLICK AND EXPLORE
1 _ QFUUEUU7;R 7?;7
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"
E/
E
E(2G"
2GE2
7?;6G/G"L 22
$$GE#
_E
#G0..
E/.0L
Sputnik
Q!8>E77RG_G*7?;=E$.7?;>G)
AMERICANA
766 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-12
 G^==;G
E).
!^766G^9:7?;>^79:7?;?E
*
E
FIGURE 28.11 The launch of the Soviet satellite
Sputnik
frightened many in the United States, who feared that
Soviet technology had surpassed their own. To calm these fears, Americans domesticated
Sputnik
, creating
children’s games based on it and using its shape as a decorative motif.
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. EG
&/G 
E/G!_1
!L$G E'G0.
#.7?;<E/0.
"G!G$.5 L
7?;<E$G G`.0G
E
SUBURBANIZATION
 .0G
E G
GG_7?;6
E2"
G
E$7?:6G0.:9E<E7?<6G
<8E(
EA
G22$$E
.E22$$G0.
GE)G
E0
GG
GAA
28.3 • The American Dream 767
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-13
"$E
22$$G
GG
E GE
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 LevittownE
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FIGURE 28.12 This aerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania, reveals acres of standardized homes. The roads were
curved to prevent cars from speeding through the residential community that was home to many young families.
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768 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-14
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E
FIGURE 28.13 In the late 1940s, a network of newly constructed highways connected suburban Long Island with
Manhattan. The nation’s new road network also served a military purpose; interstate highways made it easier to
deploy troops in the event of a national emergency.
THE ORGANIZATION MAN
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GGGG
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GG22$$
E.G
GE$A
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A_E
F(
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H_AE
28.3 • The American Dream 769

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-15
7?:<7?<:G0E.EH
baby boom E
AAE
(GE)G:6
AE/
MNCGG
E
/
E GGGG
E!_0E.EGG
EG
AG
`LE(E
GE)
G
.
GG
G
-
GG_E
/`
E
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe Americans’ different responses to rock and roll music
Discuss the way contemporary movies and television reflected postwar American society
2G_
_E(GG`
E*GGG
GGE
ROCKING AROUND THE CLOCK
$7?:6GGG-G
E.-/
_--J./#
GJ`E.G%G
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770 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-16
FIGURE 28.14 The band Bill Haley and His Comets (a) was among the [rst to launch the new genre of rock and roll.
Their hit song “Rock Around the Clock” supposedly caused some teens to break into violent behavior when they
heard it. Chuck Berry (b) was a performer who combined rhythm and blues and rock and roll. He dazzled crowds
with guitar solos and electrifying performances.
#2
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E
28.4 • Popular Culture and Mass Media 771
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-17
FIGURE 28.15 One of the original Hollywood Ten, director Edward Dmytryk publicly announced he had once been a
Communist and, in April 1951, answered questions and “named names” before the House Committee on Un-
American Activities.
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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772 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-18
FIGURE 28.16 An American family relaxes in front of their television set in 1958. Many gathered not only to watch
the programming but also to eat dinner. The marketing of small folding tray tables and frozen “TV dinners”
encouraged such behavior.
1FG
GGGGGGG
E(2F#
GG
'$

!&
7?;6E/
C_MN
E2G
GE+
&
G
--
G
/((

E
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Explain how Presidents Truman and Eisenhower addressed civil rights issues
Discuss efforts by African Americans to end discrimination and segregation
Describe southern White peoples’ response to the civil rights movement
$22$$G
0.E$.G

-E
GG
2E2G
E#2G
E
EARLY VICTORIES
22$$GM1GN
_E
22$$GG_G0.
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28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 773
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-19
E!G
G
E#G2
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E$G'7?;=G
E
CLICK AND EXPLORE
!  QFUUEUU7;'R 
2G7?;=
'
E
/GGE$
7?::GG$(G1
E$
(E1

7?:<G0E.E.
E/%
-G2
0..L
(
E
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.E&
G0E.E.
E$7?;6G
)+0E.E.
MN7>?<
+E!
G
E
.E+
#(.G
0/
E/G
G0E.E.G
MGNG
E
)GE*7;G7?:=G %
- G_E#_
)'GE
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774 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-20
FIGURE 28.17 Baseball legend Jackie Robinson (a) was active in the civil rights movement. He served on the
NAACP’s board of directors and helped to found an African American-owned bank. Alice Coachman (b), who
competed in track and [eld at Tuskegee University, was the [rst Black woman to win an Olympic gold medal.
DESEGREGATION AND INTEGRATION
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E
FIGURE 28.18 This map shows those states in which racial segregation in public education was required by law
before the 1954
Brown v. Board of Education
decision. In 1960, four years later, fewer than 10 percent of southern
African American students attended the same schools as White students.
Thurgood Marshall on Fighting Racism
As a law student in 1933, Thurgood Marshall (Figure 28.19) was recruited by his mentor Charles Hamilton
DEFINING AMERICAN
28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 775
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-21
Houston to assist in gathering information for the defense of a Black man in Virginia accused of killing two White
women. His continued close association with Houston led Marshall to aggressively defend Black people in the
court system and to use the courts as the weapon by which equal rights might be extracted from the U.S.
Constitution and a White racist system. Houston also suggested that it would be important to establish legal
precedents regarding the
Plessy v. Ferguson
ruling of separate but equal.
FIGURE 28.19 In 1956, NAACP leaders (from left to right) Henry L. Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill, and
Thurgood Marshall present a new poster in the campaign against southern White racism. Marshall successfully
argued the landmark case
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954) before the U.S. Supreme Court and later became
the court’s [rst African American justice.
By 1938, Marshall had become “Mr. Civil Rights” and formally organized the NAACP’s Legal Defense and
Education Fund in 1940 to garner the resources to take on cases to break the racist justice system of America. A
direct result of Marshalls energies and commitment was his 1940 victory in a Supreme Court case,
Chambers v.
Florida
, which held that confessions obtained by violence and torture were inadmissible in a court of law. In
1943, he won a case on behalf of Black parents protesting school segregation in suburban Hillburn, New York.
His most well-known case was
Brown v. Board of Education
in 1954, which held that state laws establishing
separate public schools for Black and White students were unconstitutional.
Later in life, Marshall reflected on his career [ghting racism in a speech at Howard Law School in 1978:
“Be aware of that myth, that everything is going to be all right. Don’t give in. I add that, because it seems to me,
that what we need to do today is to refocus. Back in the 30s and 40s, we could go no place but to court. We knew
then, the court was not the [nal solution. Many of us knew the [nal solution would have to be politics, if for no
other reason, politics is cheaper than lawsuits. So now we have both. We have our legal arm, and we have our
political arm. Let’s use them both. And don’t listen to this myth that it can be solved by either or that it has
already been solved. Take it from me, it has not been solved.”
When Marshall says that the problems of racism have not been solved, to what was he referring?
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776 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
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)"0E.EL767
Q!8>E86RE/_-
.E
FIGURE 28.20 In 1957, U.S. soldiers from the 101st Airborne were called in to escort the Little Rock Nine into and
around formerly all-White Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
/G'-)GG
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..E)4`
__GGE$
7?;=G(( Harlem NineG
_E
(MN
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)4E
WHITE RESPONSES
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
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A2G2
E*GMNL
E
*2E
*E2G
28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 777

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-23
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E
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E2'-L#.G&&&
L
E2E$7?;;G
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E
*7G7?;;G-+2G(
EG_E/G
2L+GG
(LE)H
2L+E/G
;G_E
*;G
-+LE('&G%E!G
(LE.E*
AGE(GG
9>7GE$%7?;<G
E/G0E.E.E/L
E
778 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-24
Key Terms
baby boom 0E.E7?:<B7?<:
blacklist 
Cold War 0..0G
`GGGG
GGG
G
containment 0E.E
desegregation 
domino theory G
G
Fair Deal +#/L
GI Bill _22$$
Iron Curtain 2  .
0`

Levittowns A
Little Rock Nine _
'-L#.
Marshall Plan 0E.E 

massive retaliation GMN(G
 A.0
_.0.
military-industrial complex _
_
rock and roll 
G
Sputnik
_G.0*7?;=
states’ rights G
G
Summary
28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
22$$G0E.EG
E/"$L
GAGHGG(
G_E(G
%G
_E
+#/-L)!G
GGGE
-GG/
E
28.2 The Cold War
%22$$`.0E/2
0..0E!.
28 • Key Terms 779

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-25
G0.
A E20.
.2G
&E/
.0.0.0.
E'
#..
G#E
28.3 The American Dream
$7?;9GE 0.E!
GE/
.
0EGG 0.
`HGE4G
G0E.EEAG
G
E
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
4
E/
E-GG
GE
GGG
GE
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
22$$G0.E
/(%
.-E/.

E 
G
G+ '-L#
.E/
E$(GG
LE/G2
E/GG
 /E
Review Questions
1E /DDDDDDDDE
E )
E .
E !
E .
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2E 2/LP
E /A#
E 
E 
E 
3E #"$P2P
4E 2.`P
E 
E 
E 
E 
5E // 22$$
DDDDDDDDE
E 
E !/5
E 
E (+
6E 2).&P
7E /_G.07?;=GDDDDDDDDE
E
/
E

E
+
E
.
8E /_'DDDDDDDDE
E G+
E )G)4
E )G)%
E +G+
9E #P
10E /DDDDDDDDE
E #
E +
E !
E .
11E 2#7?;6P
12E /)+M(E-NDDDDDDDDE
E 2
E %-
E *!
E /(
28 • Review Questions 781
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-27
13E /'-#.DDDDDDDDE
E ##
E &
E *!
E 
14E 2_
.E&
P
Critical Thinking Questions
15E #QEE
GGRP2
P
16E 20..
022$$P2`P
17E #.0P
18E 20.22$$P2
P
19E #
P
782 28 • Critical Thinking Questions
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 PDF
FIGURE 28.1
Is This Tomorrow?
warned Americans about the potential horrors of living under a Communist
dictatorship. Postwar propaganda such as this comic book, the cover of which showed invading Russians attacking
Americans and the U.S. flag in flames, served to drum up fear during the Cold War.
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER OUTLINE
28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
28.2 The Cold War
28.3 The American Dream
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
$//P
Q!8>E7RG7?:=G
E/0.
.0G22$$GE%.G
.0G  G
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.0E
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G
28
Post-War Prosperity and Cold War
Fears, 1945-1960

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Download
.0E/GG
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28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Identify the issues that the nation faced during demobilization
Explain the goals and objectives of the Truman administration
Evaluate the actions taken by the U.S. government to address the concerns of returning veterans
FIGURE 28.2 (credit: “1953”: modi[cation of work by Library of Congress)
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DEMOBILIZATION AND THE RETURN TO CIVILIAN LIFE
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754 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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The GI Bill of Rights
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GI Bill Q!8>E9RE G
GLE/
LGC
CE
"$
HG
E
FIGURE 28.3 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, or GI Bill, on June 22,
1944, just weeks after the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, and more than a year before the end of the war.
/CC
28.1 • The Challenges of Peacetime 755

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-1
E$7?:6G;E;E7?;6G
=E9G_
"$E/7?;6E0
GAA
E/AG0E.EE
*_"$AE
#G"$E
_E/

"$_E_(G/G
E
The Return of the Japanese
2G
E%
2
E$7?::G!-%
G%7?:;GE$GG
%E/
G_%
G_%E
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GMN
E(E2%
GE
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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THE FAIR DEAL
G/-L)E
G
E/G
 G..
GE2
GE$7?:?G/MFair
DealGNL)E#!
_)+Q)+RE#
G
7?:<G+-0
.E/GG%7?:>G
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GG-G
MNGE/
(^7E;/LG
LE/

756 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
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Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-2
E-L! +
GG
EGE!G/A
#GG/LE
28.2 The Cold War
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Explain how and why the Cold War emerged in the wake of World War II
Describe the steps taken by the U.S. government to oppose Communist expansion in Europe and Asia
Discuss the government’s efforts to root out Communist influences in the United States
22$$G0..0
C"G$G%CE
 E%.G.
0G  GA.G
.`.0E#
E/0.
`
E$`.0GG'
GGAE
/ 
GGE2"G!G"G$G%G
G0..0
GGG
GE
FROM ISOLATIONISM TO ENGAGEMENT
/0.
E#GA22$$G
"!G0.
G
E
*_!-G#/
. E#-4G
.0+E+G%7=
8G7?:;G/.L"E#
""
CL22$Q!8>E:RE
28.2 • The Cold War 757
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-3
FIGURE 28.4 At the postwar conference in Potsdam, Germany, Harry Truman stands between Joseph Stalin (right)
and Clement Atlee (left). Atlee became prime minister of Great Britain, replacing Winston Churchill, while the
conference was taking place.
0..0_+G_
E 
LG
`E/A
 Cold WarE..0E.E
G2FG
GGE$G
G`
GG&1E
CONTAINMENT ABROAD
$!7?:<G"&G._0E.E(G
AA2GE$M'/GN&
..0MN
`E&G.0

0.E#.
.`CC
E/G
containmentG0E.EE
G
 domino theory  F
)GG
E'G
.E/A(7?:<
2G Iron Curtain  MN2
 .0E
/.
E$G0E.E).7?:=E
/).
$Q$RE$
!G)
7?:?E
758 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-4
The Truman Doctrine
$ G22$$
)"E"")E
/""E$(
7?:=G"
 "E.G0
./G"/_
GG
E G
E//0E.E2E
The Truman Doctrine
In 1947, Great Britain, which had assumed responsibility for the disarming of German troops in Greece at the
end of World War II, could no longer afford to provide [nancial support for the authoritarian Greek government,
which was attempting to win a civil war against Greek leftist rebels. President Truman, unwilling to allow a
Communist government to come to power there, requested Congress to provide funds for the government of
Greece to continue its [ght against the rebels. Truman also requested aid for the government of Turkey to [ght
the forces of Communism in that country. He said:
“At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The
choice is too often not a free one.
Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to
the East.
The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of
poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep
that hope alive.
The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms.
If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world—and we shall surely endanger the welfare
of our own nation.
Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.
I am con[dent that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.”
What role is Truman suggesting that the United States assume in the postwar world? Does the United States still
assume this role?
The Marshall Plan
7?:<G_EG 
E/2 _GG
GE.
EG_$
!E//G.."E(G
 -+G Marshall PlanE
7?:>7?;7G^79 E
/LGE/
GG
!$
DEFINING AMERICAN
28.2 • The Cold War 759
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-5
E'GG
0. E.
E/.0(+G
G  0E.EE
/E
George C. Marshall and the Nobel Peace Prize
The youngest child of a Pennsylvania businessman and Democrat, George C. Marshall (Figure 28.5) chose a
military career. He attended the Virginia Military Institute, was a veteran of World War I, and spent the rest of his
life either in the military or otherwise in the service of his country, including as President Truman’s Secretary of
State. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953, the only soldier to ever receive that honor. Below is an
excerpt of his remarks as he accepted the award.
FIGURE 28.5 During World War II, George C. Marshall was responsible for expanding the 189,000-member U.S.
Army into a modern, [ghting force of eight million by 1942. As Secretary of State under Truman, he proposed the
European Recovery Program to aid European economies struggling after the war.
“There has been considerable comment over the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to a soldier. I am afraid this
does not seem as remarkable to me as it quite evidently appears to others. I know a great deal of the horrors and
tragedies of war. Today, as chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission, it is my duty to supervise
the construction and maintenance of military cemeteries in many countries overseas, particularly in Western
Europe. The cost of war in human lives is constantly spread before me, written neatly in many ledgers whose
columns are gravestones. I am deeply moved to [nd some means or method of avoiding another calamity of war.
Almost daily I hear from the wives, or mothers, or families of the fallen. The tragedy of the aftermath is almost
constantly before me.
I share with you an active concern for some practical method for avoiding war. . . . A very strong military posture
is vitally necessary today. How long it must continue I am not prepared to estimate, but I am sure that it is too
narrow a basis on which to build a dependable, long-enduring peace. The guarantee for a long continued peace
will depend on other factors in addition to a moderated military strength, and no less important. Perhaps the
most important single factor will be a spiritual regeneration to develop goodwill, faith, and understanding among
nations. Economic factors will undoubtedly play an important part. Agreements to secure a balance of power,
however disagreeable they may seem, must likewise be considered. And with all these there must be wisdom
and the will to act on that wisdom.”
What steps did Marshall recommend be taken to maintain a lasting peace? To what extent have todays nations
MY STORY
760 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-6
heeded his advice?
Showdown in Europe
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2"C(C.
%7?:>E#
G0E.EE
0G0.G"G!
2Q!8>E<RE$7?:?G2
)/*Q)/*RG
E*(78G7?:?G
G.E*(89G!-
"Q!-"RG_2"G
E/."-G "G*
7?:?E
FIGURE 28.6 American C-47 transport planes (a) are loaded with staged supplies at a French airport before taking
off for Berlin. Residents of Berlin wait for a U.S. plane (b) carrying needed supplies to land at Templehof Airport in
the American sector of the city.
CONTAINMENT AT HOME
$7?:?G_0.
.E!G8?G7?:?G.0
_C0.E
G*7G7?:?G+(5
)7?8=E/)
G&AG/7?:?E
$GA.
0E.E.
0.E$G!7?;6G2%
(G-G._E
28.2 • The Cold War 761

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-7
7?;6G"&!G"A
(+.GE
$!E/
% -G%
7?;9E.G%G
G.0E
!0.L
(5E-L)
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-E$G(87G7?:=G/
 *?>9;G!$
E.
_E
$G#0AQ#0R
7?9>E$
GGE#0
#
A.E2H
E/!G
G blacklistG
E)7?:67?;6
'G#G'#G
+-G.E
TO THE TRENCHES AGAIN
%0E.E_0.G
E/.0
&22$$G0.
E/..&G.
0.&E)&LGG
E$7?;6G._)&L
&$..&)&E
*%8;G7?;6G)&+LAG
).&E/_0E.E
G)&
G0.L C%E/0)Q0)RG
7?:;GE*%8=G0).)
&L0).&E
.G.0G0)
L./(5L
+L-E
*%8=G/0E.E.&E/
&+E0E.EA$.7;
)&Q!8>E=RE)&
AG0)0E.E"(E
(L)&.&
)&EG+/HG0)
4-G)&G(L/LE
762 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-8
5 G)&
`G)&0E.EE!
)&L-G)&
.G(/E/G
GE(/L
-GE
$7?;7G/(E/%
.G(MGG
GEN)G(L)4
LE
FIGURE 28.7 After the initial invasion of South Korea by the North Korean People’s Democratic Army, the United
Nations established a defensive line in the southern part of the country. The landing at Inchon in September
reversed the tide of the war and allowed UN forces under General Douglas MacArthur to retake the city of Seoul,
which had fallen to North Korean troops in the early days of the war.
%7?;7G0))&
AGE#G
E/E/
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E!G%8=G7?;9E).
&GAGE
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E!A`E*G
9<G;660E.EH&E
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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E
&GA
0.E0E.E.G.%(
E+-
.-/-)(
GE$7?;9G."
*G(1GA0E.E
G.LE
28.2 • The Cold War 763

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-9
+G(0E.EE/L
E!%7?;:GA(#G
G_G(L
0.Q!8>E>RE$7?;:G0E.E._
GE
FIGURE 28.8 Senator Joseph McCarthy (left) consults with Roy Cohn (right) during the Army-McCarthy hearings.
Cohn, a lawyer who worked for McCarthy, was responsible for investigating State Department libraries overseas for
“subversive” books.
*0.G
(GE
(AG(GG. 
MGNE(
.
GE
28.3 The American Dream
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe President Dwight D. Eisenhowers domestic and foreign policies
Discuss gender roles in the 1950s
Discuss the growth of the suburbs and the effect of suburbanization on American society
2G
"22$$EE G
0. 7?:;G
E'G
GE$G
L)'L
E
WE LIKE IKE
#/G7?;8
G$.G-E G
 22$$Q!8>E?RE 
&G`_E#
_G
-(E)GG
764 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-10
..#E
FIGURE 28.9 Dwight D. Eisenhower was the perfect presidential candidate in 1952. He had never before run for
of[ce or even cast a vote, and thus had no political record to be challenged or criticized.
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.;:>=Q!8>E76RE2
_7?;9G 
E#
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#/G 
E#G
-G)..E#
G7?<7G military-industrial
complexG_
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GE
FIGURE 28.10 The above map shows the resounding victory of Dwight D. Eisenhower over Adlai Stevenson in the
1952 election. Stevenson carried only the South, where White people had voted for Democratic Party candidates
since the time of the Civil War.
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E#)'
Mmassive retaliationGN_.
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28.3 • The American Dream 765
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-11
+.0
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GE.
_
E
A Guide for Surviving Nuclear War”
To prepare its citizens for the possibility of nuclear war, in 1950, the U.S. government published and distributed
informative pamphlets such as “A Guide for Surviving Nuclear War” excerpted here.
“Just like [re bombs and ordinary high explosives, atomic weapons cause most of their death and damage by
blast and heat. So [rst let’s look at a few things you can do to escape these two dangers.
Even if you have only a second’s warning, there is one important thing you can do to lessen your chances of injury
by blast: Fall flat on your face.
More than half of all wounds are the result of being bodily tossed about or being struck by falling and flying
objects. If you lie down flat, you are least likely to be thrown about. If you have time to pick a good spot, there is
less chance of your being struck by flying glass and other things.
If you are inside a building, the best place to flatten out is close against the cellar wall. If you haven’t time to get
down there, lie down along an inside wall, or duck under a bed or table. . . .
If caught out-of-doors, either drop down alongside the base of a good substantial building—avoid flimsy, wooden
ones likely to be blown over on top of you—or else jump in any handy ditch or gutter.
When you fall flat to protect yourself from a bombing, don’t look up to see what is coming. Even during the
daylight hours, the flash from a bursting A-bomb can cause several moments of blindness, if you’re facing that
way. To prevent it, bury your face in your arms and hold it there for 10 to 12 seconds after the explosion. . . .
If you work in the open, always wear full-length, loose-[tting, light-colored clothes in time of emergency. Never
go around with your sleeves rolled up. Always wear a hat—the brim could save you a serious face burn.”
What do you think was the purpose of these directions? Do you think they could actually help people survive an
atomic bomb blast? If not, why publish such booklets?
CLICK AND EXPLORE
1 _ QFUUEUU7;R 7?;7
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"
E/
E
E(2G"
2GE2
7?;6G/G"L 22
$$GE#
_E
#G0..
E/.0L
Sputnik
Q!8>E77RG_G*7?;=E$.7?;>G)
AMERICANA
766 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-12
 G^==;G
E).
!^766G^9:7?;>^79:7?;?E
*
E
FIGURE 28.11 The launch of the Soviet satellite
Sputnik
frightened many in the United States, who feared that
Soviet technology had surpassed their own. To calm these fears, Americans domesticated
Sputnik
, creating
children’s games based on it and using its shape as a decorative motif.
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. EG
&/G 
E/G!_1
!L$G E'G0.
#.7?;<E/0.
"G!G$.5 L
7?;<E$G G`.0G
E
SUBURBANIZATION
 .0G
E G
GG_7?;6
E2"
G
E$7?:6G0.:9E<E7?<6G
<8E(
EA
G22$$E
.E22$$G0.
GE)G
E0
GG
GAA
28.3 • The American Dream 767
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-13
"$E
22$$G
GG
E GE
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 LevittownE
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FIGURE 28.12 This aerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania, reveals acres of standardized homes. The roads were
curved to prevent cars from speeding through the residential community that was home to many young families.
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768 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-14
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E
FIGURE 28.13 In the late 1940s, a network of newly constructed highways connected suburban Long Island with
Manhattan. The nation’s new road network also served a military purpose; interstate highways made it easier to
deploy troops in the event of a national emergency.
THE ORGANIZATION MAN
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GGGG
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GG22$$
E.G
GE$A
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A_E
F(
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H_AE
28.3 • The American Dream 769

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-15
7?:<7?<:G0E.EH
baby boom E
AAE
(GE)G:6
AE/
MNCGG
E
/
E GGGG
E!_0E.EGG
EG
AG
`LE(E
GE)
G
.
GG
G
-
GG_E
/`
E
28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Describe Americans’ different responses to rock and roll music
Discuss the way contemporary movies and television reflected postwar American society
2G_
_E(GG`
E*GGG
GGE
ROCKING AROUND THE CLOCK
$7?:6GGG-G
E.-/
_--J./#
GJ`E.G%G
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770 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-16
FIGURE 28.14 The band Bill Haley and His Comets (a) was among the [rst to launch the new genre of rock and roll.
Their hit song “Rock Around the Clock” supposedly caused some teens to break into violent behavior when they
heard it. Chuck Berry (b) was a performer who combined rhythm and blues and rock and roll. He dazzled crowds
with guitar solos and electrifying performances.
#2
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E
28.4 • Popular Culture and Mass Media 771
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-17
FIGURE 28.15 One of the original Hollywood Ten, director Edward Dmytryk publicly announced he had once been a
Communist and, in April 1951, answered questions and “named names” before the House Committee on Un-
American Activities.
CLICK AND EXPLORE
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772 28 • Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960
Access for free at openstax.org.

Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-18
FIGURE 28.16 An American family relaxes in front of their television set in 1958. Many gathered not only to watch
the programming but also to eat dinner. The marketing of small folding tray tables and frozen “TV dinners”
encouraged such behavior.
1FG
GGGGGGG
E(2F#
GG
'$

!&
7?;6E/
C_MN
E2G
GE+
&
G
--
G
/((

E
28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
Explain how Presidents Truman and Eisenhower addressed civil rights issues
Discuss efforts by African Americans to end discrimination and segregation
Describe southern White peoples’ response to the civil rights movement
$22$$G
0.E$.G

-E
GG
2E2G
E#2G
E
EARLY VICTORIES
22$$GM1GN
_E
22$$GG_G0.
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28.5 • The African American Struggle for Civil Rights 773
Post-War_Prosperity_and_Cold_War_Fears_1945-1960 Image-19
E!G
G
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